1071: Exoplanets

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==Explanation==
 
==Explanation==
{{incomplete|because incorrect, there are more methods then Kepler did use}}
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An {{w|exoplanet}} is a planet outside of our solar system, orbiting a different sun. 786 of them were known in mid-2012; since then astronomers have found thousands more. In the comic, red dots indicate planets larger than Jupiter, dark brown is roughly Jupiter-sized, light brown is smaller gas giants, blue is roughly Earth-sized, and the tiny dots are obviously smaller planets.
An {{w|exoplanet}} is a planet outside of our solar system, orbiting a different sun. 786 of them were known in mid-2012; since then we have found thousands more. We only have a few ways of {{w|Discoveries of extrasolar planets|finding exoplanets}}. Astronomers initially used {{w|doppler spectroscopy}}, which detects minute changes in a star's movement towards or away from us to infer the presence of large gas giants or {{w|brown dwarf}}s. Currently the most successful method is to notice when a star seems to briefly get dimmer on a repeating cycle. This may indicate that a body of matter has passed between that star and us, blocking some of the light. The {{w|Kepler (spacecraft)|Kepler space telescope}} was designed for this purpose, and has made the vast majority of exoplanet discoveries.  
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Most of Kepler's discoveries are between the sizes of Earth and Neptune, but it's sensitive enough to detect planets smaller than Mercury (if their orbital plane is aligned with us). Kepler is only able to observe relatively close stars in a {{w|File:LombergA1024.jpg|narrow field of view}}. The great number of nearby planets implies there should be {{w|Carl Sagan|billions}} of planets in our galaxy ([[1339|assuming]] our local arm is not uniquely abundant). The title text refers to this, indicating that the total is at least 786^3 (786*786*786) if not 786^4.
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We only have a few ways of {{w|Discoveries of exoplanets|finding exoplanets}}. Astronomers initially used {{w|doppler spectroscopy}}, which detects minute changes in a star's movement towards or away from us to infer the presence of large gas giants or {{w|brown dwarf}}s. Currently the most successful method is to notice when a star seems to briefly get dimmer on a repeating cycle. This may indicate that a body of matter has passed between that star and us, blocking some of the light. The {{w|Kepler (spacecraft)|Kepler space telescope}} was designed for this purpose, and has made the vast majority of exoplanet discoveries.
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Most of Kepler's discoveries are between the sizes of Earth and Neptune, but it's sensitive enough to detect planets smaller than Mercury (if the orbital plane is aligned with us). Kepler is only able to observe relatively close stars in a {{w|File:LombergA1024.jpg|narrow field of view}}. The great number of nearby planets implies there should be {{w|Carl Sagan|billions}} of planets in our galaxy ([[1339|assuming]] our local arm is not uniquely abundant). The title text refers to this, saying the total is at least 786^3 (786*786*786) if not 786^4.
  
 
Exoplanets have been discussed before in comic [[786: Exoplanets]] and later.
 
Exoplanets have been discussed before in comic [[786: Exoplanets]] and later.

Revision as of 13:16, 17 March 2014

Exoplanets
Planets are turning out to be so common that to show all the planets in our galaxy, this chart would have to be nested in itself—with each planet replaced by a copy of the chart—at least three levels deep.
[Click comic to enlarge]
Title text: Planets are turning out to be so common that to show all the planets in our galaxy, this chart would have to be nested in itself—with each planet replaced by a copy of the chart—at least three levels deep.

Explanation

An exoplanet is a planet outside of our solar system, orbiting a different sun. 786 of them were known in mid-2012; since then astronomers have found thousands more. In the comic, red dots indicate planets larger than Jupiter, dark brown is roughly Jupiter-sized, light brown is smaller gas giants, blue is roughly Earth-sized, and the tiny dots are obviously smaller planets.

We only have a few ways of finding exoplanets. Astronomers initially used doppler spectroscopy, which detects minute changes in a star's movement towards or away from us to infer the presence of large gas giants or brown dwarfs. Currently the most successful method is to notice when a star seems to briefly get dimmer on a repeating cycle. This may indicate that a body of matter has passed between that star and us, blocking some of the light. The Kepler space telescope was designed for this purpose, and has made the vast majority of exoplanet discoveries.

Most of Kepler's discoveries are between the sizes of Earth and Neptune, but it's sensitive enough to detect planets smaller than Mercury (if the orbital plane is aligned with us). Kepler is only able to observe relatively close stars in a narrow field of view. The great number of nearby planets implies there should be billions of planets in our galaxy (assuming our local arm is not uniquely abundant). The title text refers to this, saying the total is at least 786^3 (786*786*786) if not 786^4.

Exoplanets have been discussed before in comic 786: Exoplanets and later.

Transcript

[An enormous diagram of dots, mostly of varying shades of brown and greenish yellow, with a number of smaller blue dots and larger red dots.]
All 786 known planets (as of June 2012) to scale.
(Some planet sizes estimated based on mass)
This [indicating a small section of 8 planets out of the several hundreds] is our solar system. The rest of these orbit other stars and were only discovered recently. Most of them are huge because those are the kind we learned to detect first, but now we're finding that small ones are actually more common. We know nothing about what's on any of them. With better telescopes, that could change. This is an exciting time.
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Discussion

Hmm... this comic and 786 have the same title. Is that a mistake? Jimmy C (talk) 01:07, 24 October 2012 (UTC)

It may very well have been on xkcd itself; there was a bit of a snafu when Randall posted the image. That's part of the reason why we decided on number+name here, to ensure that that sort of naming collision couldn't be repeated. -- IronyChef (talk) 04:39, 24 October 2012 (UTC)
It's also worth mentioning that 786 is both the number of the other strip, and the number of planets in this one. 93.144.215.90 22:38, 16 April 2013 (UTC)

The image isn't appearing for me. I think it's a problem with the thumbnail system. Bugefun (talk) 18:15, 27 December 2012 (UTC)

Same here. Using Chrome. -- St.nerol (talk) 19:20, 27 December 2012 (UTC)

Same on ipad. DruidDriver (talk) 07:12, 17 January 2013 (UTC)

And on Firefox. --68.200.188.141 01:01, 27 January 2013 (UTC)

Not showing up in Chrome. Alpha (talk) 23:14, 2 February 2013 (UTC)

As a side note, the pace at which we're discovering exoplanets is accelerating. The first confirmed planet-sized mass outside our solar system was discovered in 1992, and it was ten years until we could celebrate the discovery of the 100th exoplanet. In the fifteen months since this comic was posted, another 156 exoplanets have been discovered (source: Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia, which lists 942 exoplanets as of 2 Sep 2013). Frijole (talk) 22:41, 10 September 2013 (UTC)

There are 786 exoplanets listed in the comic, And the previous comic about exoplanets is comic 786..... Coincidence? 108.162.222.44 08:58, 3 December 2013 (UTC)

I think it's possible that he was waiting for the count to increase to that number to create some sort of meta-pun. With Randall, you never know, but the odds of that happening independently seems unfathomable to me. 108.162.238.117 16:12, 4 December 2013 (UTC)
Additional comment: I believe the original filename for 768 was just "exoplanets.png" before being changed to "exoplanets_2010.png" when this comic was released. Any website that hotlinked the first comic would have their image replaced with the newest one. 108.162.238.117 (talk) (please sign your comments with ~~~~)

Does anybody else see this and think colorblindness test? 173.245.55.86 22:43, 23 January 2014 (UTC)

Three levels deep.. Remind anyone of Inception?A2658742 (talk) 08:36, 25 October 2014 (UTC)
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