https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=IdiosyncraticLawyer&feedformat=atomexplain xkcd - User contributions [en]2022-05-22T23:54:16ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.30.0https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=User:IdiosyncraticLawyer&diff=268912User:IdiosyncraticLawyer2022-05-14T03:26:49Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Capitalization</p>
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I registered my Explain xkcd account on 2022-01-10 at 19:59 and confirmed my email on 2022-01-11 at 02:52. As of 2022-01-13 at 19:59, I am an autoconfirmed user.</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=User:IdiosyncraticLawyer&diff=228061User:IdiosyncraticLawyer2022-03-06T18:13:29Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Wording</p>
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I registered my Explain xkcd account on 2022-01-10 at 19:59 and confirmed my email on 2022-01-11 at 02:52. As of 2022-01-13 at 19:59, I am an autoconfirmed user.</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=User:IdiosyncraticLawyer&diff=224304User:IdiosyncraticLawyer2022-01-13T22:50:26Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Created</p>
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I registered my Explain xkcd account at 19:59, 10/01/2022, and confirmed my email at 02:52 on 11/01/2022. As of 19:59, 13/01/2022, I am an autoconfirmed user.</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2528:_Flag_Map_Sabotage&diff=2239922528: Flag Map Sabotage2022-01-11T02:50:42Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
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<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2528<br />
| date = October 13, 2021<br />
| title = Flag Map Sabotage<br />
| image = flag_map_sabotage.png<br />
| titletext = Delaware hopes to explore the western edge of areas marked with the Belgian flag, once the tornadoes die down.<br />
}}<br />
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==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|This particular explanation could use a visual aid. Perhaps a world map where Canada had adopted this flag? - Please change this comment when editing this page. Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
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The comic refers to a type of map that colors countries using the national flag designs; see [https://i.pinimg.com/originals/41/0f/36/410f3661d1cee3b255b82a111f99d242.jpg here] for such a map of Europe. Randall proposes a new flag specifically designed to troll such maps. Most obviously, the flag includes a legend with multiple common flag colors to indicate random regional attributes. Hence, the mere act of placing this flag on a map would cause people to misinterpret this legend as applying to the entire map, giving wildly false information about regions of other countries. This trick is reminiscent of [[327: Exploits of a Mom]], with Mrs. Robert's son <code>Robert'); DROP TABLE Students;--</code>. <br />
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In addition to the legend, the flag consists of two red fields, one of which has an irregular-shaped border, the other of which is a straight line. The irregular shape is similar to a geographical border based on natural features (such as rivers and coastlines), while borders not based on such features tend to be straight lines. Red is the most common color on national flags, so if any bordering country had red on their flag, it would risk bordering these red fields, confusing where the border lay (as well as designating the entire red region as "greater Delaware"). If this flag is intended for the USA (although the text mentions "our new country"), the red regions would be continuous with the red strips on both sides of Canada's flag and the red field on the right of Mexico's flag, disguising the border still further. <br />
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The title text refers to the flag of Belgium, which consists of three vertical stripes in the order (left to right) black, yellow, and red. The western part of Belgium would, according to the legend, be unexplored, while the eastern part would be Greater Delaware. The middle would therefore be a tornado zone separating the unexplored area from Greater Delaware. Depending on how the flags are aligned it might be possible to explore from the south, where the blue-white-red stripes of the French flag contain another piece of Greater Delaware that may be conveniently located to help said exploration. Exploring from the Netherlands (red, white, and blue horizontal stripes) is not viable as rebel forces are positioned between Greater Delaware and the unexplored region. <br />
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This is not the first time Randall has made a flag for a new country! See [[1815: Flag]]<br />
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==Transcript==<br />
{{incomplete transcript|Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
:[A flag displays a white country-shaped area surrounded by a red field. Inside the shape sits a map legend.]<br />
<br />
:[Label of map legend] Map Legend<br />
:[Bright blue rectangle] Disputed territory<br />
:[Green rectangle] Newly independent<br />
:[Blue rectangle] Demilitarized zone<br />
:[Yellow rectangle] Tornado warning<br />
:[Dark blue rectangle] Held by rebel forces<br />
:[Red rectangle] Greater Delaware<br />
:[Black rectangle] Unexplored<br />
<br />
:[Caption below panel]<br />
:Our new country's flag sabotages those maps where geographic areas are colored in with flag patterns.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Comics with color]]<br />
[[Category:Maps]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2523:_Endangered&diff=2239902523: Endangered2022-01-11T02:47:06Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
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<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2523<br />
| date = October 1, 2021<br />
| title = Endangered<br />
| image = endangered.png<br />
| titletext = The list includes polio, Guinea worm, and this one particular enterovirus strain that they've been tracking out of spite after it went around the lab a few years ago.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|Created by [https://futurama.fandom.com/wiki/Encyclopod The Encyclopod] who wanted to preserve [https://futurama.fandom.com/wiki/The_Dark_One The (now-extinct) Dark One]'s DNA but ... - Title text not explained, specifically why the mentioned virus type could be such an issue for the team. Is it embarrassing? Or were they just all very ill? Please change this comment when editing this page. Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
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The {{w|endangered species}} list (also known as the {{w|IUCN Red List}}) is a system for categorizing species based on "level of extinction".<br />
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[[Ponytail]], [[Cueball]], and [[Megan]] in this comic are scientists who are sarcastically worried about pathogen strains becoming extinct. People want harmful pathogens and parasites to go extinct.{{citation needed}}<br />
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Randall was most likely inspired by [https://www.nature.com/articles/s41579-021-00642-4 this article] about different {{w|influenza}} strains. Influenza causes the yearly flu, which infects 5–15% of the global population annually and causes 3-5 million severe cases worldwide.<br />
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The title text mentions {{w|polio}} and {{w|Dracunculiasis|Guinea worm disease}} - diseases that are being {{w|Eradication of infectious diseases|eradicated due to worldwide efforts}} - the former, famously, through vaccination, and the latter through education and prevention techniques. A Google search [https://www.google.com/search?q=%22sarcastic+endangered%22+list "sarcastic endangered" list] seems to indicate that the "sarcastic endangered" list is not a real thing. <br />
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The bitter irony here is that much recent scholarship has described [https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/parasites-are-going-extinct-heres-why-thats-a-bad-thing-180964808/ links between parasite biodiversity and ecosystem-wide, indeed planet-wide, biodiversity]. In a few cases, if preserving and expanding biodiversity are seen as good things, then preserving and expanding biodiversity of parasites is a good thing, the one not being possible without the other. Parasites and disease agents, arguably, are classes of predators, and their removal can help establish a superpredator, the actions of which can catastrophically drive down biodiversity. Humans, released from predation by a large percentage of formerly-effective microbial predators, through the introduction of penicillin and other antibiotics plus other elements of 'heroic medicine', sanitation, etc., have arguably [https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/modern-humans-have-become-superpredators-180956348/ become such a superpredator], and one that is mediating a loss of global biodiversity that may become the largest single species-extinction event in the history of planet Earth.<br />
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There also seems to be some evidence that infections with influenza viruses increase the chance of a heart attack. For instance regular flu shots [https://www.heart.org/en/news/2020/11/18/flu-shot-reduces-risk-of-death-for-people-with-heart-disease reduce the risk of heart attacks]. Thus the fact that we are "heartbroken" when B/Yamagata goes extinct could be sarcastic since we might suffer less from broken hearts.<br />
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==Transcript==<br />
<br />
:[Ponytail stands facing Cueball and Megan in front of a poster board.]<br />
:[Ponytail is pointing a stick to the board reading "Current List" with bullet points beneath.]<br />
:[The first bullet reads Influenza B/Yamagata.]<br />
:[Four further bullet points follow, which are left indistinct.]<br />
<br />
:Ponytail: Influenza's genetic diversity has declined during the pandemic, and the B/Yamagata lineage is at risk of extinction.<br />
:Ponytail: Which would be ''such'' a shame.<br />
:Megan: Yeah, I'm sooooooo worried about it.<br />
:Cueball: We'd be just ''heartbroken!''<br />
<br />
:[Caption below the panel]: <br />
:When a pathogen that scientists really don't like is close to disappearing, it gets added to the sarcastic endangered species list.<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Ponytail]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Cueball]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Megan]]<br />
[[Category:Biology]]<br />
[[Category:Sarcasm]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2520:_Symbols&diff=2239882520: Symbols2022-01-11T02:40:44Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
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<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2520<br />
| date = September 24, 2021<br />
| title = Symbols<br />
| image = symbols.png<br />
| titletext = "röntgen" and "rem" are 20th-century physics terms that mean "no trespassing."<br />
}}<br />
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==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|Created by VERY EXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT - Please change this comment when editing this page. Do NOT delete this tag too soon. A bare-bones explanation is in but needs much more detail.}}<br />
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This comic refers to elements of (mostly mathematical or engineering) notation commonly used in various fields of math and science. Each piece of notation is presented as "symbolizing" not what it specifically means, but a typical ''context'' in which it might be encountered. Many of the individual descriptions look like verbiage that might be found on informational or warnings signs or placards, although typically with a silly edge.<br />
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*<sup>d</sup>⁄<sub>dx</sub>: An undergrad is working very hard<br />
d/dx is the symbol for a single-variable {{w|Derivative|derivative}}. This is one of the basic operations in {{w|calculus}} and consequently is ubiquitous in the work of undergraduates in the sciences. A hard-working undergraduate in the relevant fields would churn through exercises using this symbol.<br />
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*<sup>∂</sup>⁄<sub>∂x</sub>: A grad student is working very hard<br />
The replacement of the standard "d" letters with the curly letters "∂" denotes the partial derivative, which generalizes the ordinary derivative to multi-variable calculus. Problems with partial derivatives, especially partial differential equations, can be extremely challenging. Although PDEs would typically be first taught at an undergraduate level, difficult partial derivatives would be encountered in graduate-level work.<br />
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*ħ: Oh wow, this is apparently a quantum thing<br />
ħ (pronounced "h-bar") is a symbol used for (the reduced) {{w|Planck's constant}}, a universal, fundamental constant in quantum physics. ħ is equal to the energy of a photon divided by its frequency, and angular momentum in quantum mechanical systems is measured in quantized integer or half-integer units of ħ.<br />
Classical physics appears as a limit of quantum physics if all "actions" (quantities of dimension energy * time, momentum * length, or angular momentum) are much larger than ħ. Conversely, you can also formally set ħ=0 to get classical results from quantum formulae. This means that effects that are proportional to some power of ħ cannot be explained classically, and instead are "a quantum thing".<br />
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*Rₑ: Someone needs to do a lot of tedious numerical work; hopefully it's not you<br />
The {{w|Reynolds number}} (which is usually denoted by "Re," not "R<sub>e</sub>" as it appears in the comic) is the most important dimensionless group in fluid mechanics. Named for Osborne Reynolds, Re characterizes the relative sizes of inertial and viscous effects in a moving fluid. Large values of Re are indicative of turbulent flow, which cannot usually be retrieved analytically, and so numerical modeling is necessary. Accurate numerical studies of high-Reynolds-number flows are notoriously difficult to create and program.<br />
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Alternatively, Rₑ could stand for electronic {{w|transition dipole moment}} in a molecule. This appears in quantum-mechanical calculations of transition probabilities and also includes a lot of unpleasant numerical work. Rₑ is also a term used for the radius of the Earth at mean sea level, though this is not necessarily a complex term in and of itself.<br />
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Another alternative is that Rₑ could refer to Relative Error, a measurement of precision or accuracy. Used often in the analysis of scientific data and numerical analysis.<br />
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*(T<sub>a</sub>⁴ - T<sub>b</sub>⁴): You are at risk of skin burns<br />
The {{w|Stefan-Boltzmann law}} says that a perfectly absorbing ("black body") source emits electromagnetic radiation with a power per unit area of σT<sup>4</sup>, where σ is a known constant and T is the absolute temperature. The quantity (T<sub>a</sub><sup>4</sup> – T<sub>b</sub><sup>4</sup>) thus appears in any calculation of purely radiative energy transfer between two bodies, one at temperature T<sub>a</sub> and the other at T<sub>b</sub>. When the radiative transfer is large enough to be the most important form of heat interchange, it is normally also large enough to sear the skin with thermal or ultraviolet burns.<br />
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*N<sub>A</sub>: You are probably about to make an incredibly dangerous arithmetic error<br />
N<sub>A</sub>, or {{w|Avogadro's number}}, is the number of molecules in a mole of a substance, approximately the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12. This is an enormous number, exactly 6.022 140 76 × 10²³, or 602 214 076 000 000 000 000 000. Working with N<sub>A</sub>, it is easy to accidentally divide by it instead of multiplying or vice versa, leading to erroneous and nonsensical answers such as ~10<sup>-23</sup> molecules (even though you can't have less than 1 whole molecule) or ~10<sup>46</sup> moles (>10<sup>43</sup> kilograms, depending on the chemical) of a substance.<br />
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*µm: Careful, that equipment is expensive<br />
{{w|Micrometre|Micrometer}}s are a very small unit of distance. Micrometers are commonly used to measure wavelengths in the infrared, and infrared detectors are very expensive, compared with visible wavelength counterparts. Of course, micrometers are used as a measurement of distance in other contexts, but any distance-measuring device capable of accurately measuring micrometer distances would also be expensive. Similarly, tools used to create or calibrate items within micrometer tolerances can also be expensive.<br />
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*mK: Careful, that equipment is <i>very</i> expensive<br />
{{w|Kelvin}} is a temperature scale roughly speaking similar to Celsius, but taking absolute zero as its zero point instead of the freezing point of water (rigorously speaking, its definition is now {{w|2019_redefinition_of_the_SI_base_units#Kelvin|based on the Boltzmann constant}}). {{w|Millikelvin}}s (1/1000 of a Kelvin) are used for high precision temperature work. Frequently this is used in processes of cooling temperatures to nearly absolute zero - such as superconductors or other quantum effects that occur when atoms are almost still. This is suggesting that the symbol appears on a sensitive experimental system probing quantum mechanical behavior that would likely only exist in an advanced laboratory. Any equipment that works down at mK temperatures, or at least to mK precision and accuracy, is likely to be very expensive.<br />
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*nm: Don't shine that in your eye<br />
{{w|Nanometer}}s are frequently seen in the listed wavelengths for lasers. Pointing a visible or infrared laser at someone's eye is notoriously dangerous; the tightly-focused coherent light can cause permanent damage very quickly.<br />
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*eV: <i>Definitely</i> don't shine that in your eye<br />
{{w|Electron volt}} energies are typical of moderate-energy particle beams, produced by accelerating electrons (or protons) over macroscopic voltages. These particle beams can be {{w|Anatoli Bugorski|even more damaging (and are probably a direct reference to Anatoli Bugorski)}} to soft tissues than optical-wavelength lasers.<br />
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*mSv: You're about to get into an Internet argument<br />
The {{w|millisievert}} is a unit of radiation dose absorbed. It is a very small dosage, but the joke refers to Internet trolls debating the effects of low-dose radiation sources, such as 5G wireless networks. [[Randall|Randall's]] comment may also be referring to [https://xkcd.com/radiation/ this chart].<br />
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*mg/kg: Go wash your hands<br />
This unit measures the dose of a drug or other chemical in milligrams per kilogram of body mass. If the appropriate dose - or worse, the lethal dose - is measured in mg/kg (parts per million), then the substance may be quite toxic.<br />
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*µg/kg: Go get in the chemical shower<br />
A unit 1/1000 times the size of mg/kg. If a dosage is measured in micrograms per kilogram (parts per billion), any accident probably requires whole-body decontamination procedures.<br />
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*π or τ: Whatever answer you get will be wrong by a factor of exactly two<br />
π is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, while τ is defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius (and is therefore equal to 2π). {{w|pi|π}} has been used as the primary constant for describing the circumference and area of circles millennia ago, but proponents of {{w|Turn (angle)|τ}} claim that τ is more natural in most contexts since it makes working in radians more straightforward. The joke here is that whichever constant you use, it will probably be the wrong one (off by a factor of two, one way or the other) for the formula you are trying to use. The debate over Tau vs Pi was solved by Randall in this compromise: [[1292: Pi vs. Tau]].<br />
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The title text refers to two non-SI units of radiation measurement, {{w|Roentgen (unit)|röntgen}} and {{w|Roentgen equivalent man|rem}}. In the mid-20th century when they were in use, the dangers of radiation weren't as well understood as today, so an area with radiation that was noteworthy back then is probably dangerous[https://archive.md/v3dME], hence the no trespassing part.<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
:[A list with 14 different scientific constants/symbols are shown. Next to each symbol is a description. Above the list is a heading and beneath that a subheading.]<br />
:::::<big>Symbols</big><br />
::::And what they mean<br />
<br />
:::<sup>d</sup>⁄<sub>dx</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; An undergrad is working very hard<br />
:::<sup>∂</sup>⁄<sub>∂x</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A grad student is working very hard<br />
:::ħ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Oh wow, this is apparently a quantum thing<br />
:::Rₑ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Someone needs to do a lot of tedious numerical work; hopefully it's not you<br />
:(T<sub>a</sub>⁴ - T<sub>b</sub>⁴)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; You are at risk of skin burns<br />
:::N<sub>A</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; You are probably about to make an incredibly dangerous arithmetic error<br />
:::µm&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Careful, that equipment is expensive<br />
:::mK&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Careful, that equipment is <i>very</i> expensive<br />
:::nm&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Don't shine that in your eye<br />
:::eV&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; '''''Definitely''''' don't shine that in your eye<br />
:::mSv&nbsp; You're about to get into an internet argument<br />
::mg/kg&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Go wash your hands<br />
::µg/kg&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Go get in the chemical shower<br />
::π or τ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Whatever answer you get will be wrong by a factor of exactly two<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Math]]<br />
[[Category:Physics]]<br />
[[Category:Chemistry]]<br />
[[Category:Biology]]<br />
[[Category:5G]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2509:_Useful_Geometry_Formulas&diff=2239872509: Useful Geometry Formulas2022-01-11T02:31:21Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
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<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2509<br />
| date = August 30, 2021<br />
| title = Useful Geometry Formulas<br />
| image = useful_geometry_formulas.png<br />
| titletext = Geometry textbooks always try to trick you by adding decorative stripes and dotted lines.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|Created by a STRIPED AND DOTTED TEXTBOOK ILLUSTRATOR. Explain the formulas for each of the areas, and also the correct formula for the 3D object they seem to represent. Consider whether to add a table with the formula given and the correct formula for the 3D shape. Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
This comic showcases area formulas for the areas of four two-dimensional geometric shapes which each have extra dotted and/or solid lines making them look like illustrations for 3-dimensional objects. The first, a simple equation for the area of a circle, the second an equation for the area of a triangle with a semi-elliptic base, the third an equation for the area of a rectangle with an elliptical base and top, and the fourth an equation for the area of a hexagon consisting of two opposing right-angled corners and two parallel diagonal lines connecting their sides. In each case, only the area formed by the outline of each shape is calculated.<br />
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Similar illustrations are commonly found in geometry textbooks, which are used to depict three-dimensional figures on a two-dimensional page. They commonly make use of slanted lines to indicate edges receding into the distance and dashed lines to indicate an edge occluded by nearer parts of the solid. The joke is that the formulae given here are for the area of each two-dimensional shape within its outer solid lines, not for the surface area or volume of the illustrated 3D object (as would be shown in the geometry textbook). The title text continues the joke by claiming that the dotted lines are simply decorative.<br />
<br />
The illustrations depict the following plane or solid figures, depending on the interpretation.<br />
<br />
; Top Left - Circle with an inscribed ellipse, or Sphere<br />
This illustration is commonly used to depict a three-dimensional sphere, with the ellipse representing a "horizontal" or axial cross-section through the center; the solid lower half of the ellipse represents the "front" of the circumference of this cross-section, while the dotted upper half represents the "back" of the same section, which would be occluded from view if this were a solid shape.<br />
<br />
The radius of the circle, from the center to the right edge where it meets the ellipse, is labeled 'r'. In a textbook diagram of a sphere, the radius might be instead labeled with a diagonal line from the center to a different point on the ellipse, implying the generality that all points on that cross-section, and indeed on the whole spherical surface, are at the same radius from the center. However, this line would be shorter on the page than the actual radius, making it useless for the formula of the area of the 2D outer shape.<br />
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The area of the 2D shape on the page is the area of the circle, which is A = πr<sup>2</sup>. This is captioned below the figure. <br />
<br />
Coincidentally the area of the horizontal cross-section of the 3D sphere, as depicted by the ellipse, is also πr<sup>2</sup>, and a reader familiar with such diagrams might initially assume that this is what was meant. However, this does not extend to the other figures. <br />
<br />
The 3D sphere commonly depicted by this drawing would have a volume of <sup>4</sup>/<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;πr<sup>3</sup> and a surface area of 4πr<sup>2</sup>. <br />
<br />
; Top Right - Ellipse with symmetrical diagonal lines, or Cone<br />
This illustration is commonly used to depict a three-dimensional right circular cone, with the lower half of the ellipse representing the "front edge" of the bottom surface, and the upper half representing the occluded "back edge". However such drawings would usually not use both 'a' and 'b' to describe the radius of the base of the cone, which is drawn as an ellipse due to foreshortening. Alternatively, the drawing could depict a right elliptical cone.<br />
<br />
Randall approximates the area of the 2D shape on the page as the sum of the area of the triangle formed by the major axis of the ellipse and the two lines, and half of the area of the ellipse (<sup>π</sup>/<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;ab) since most of the upper half of the ellipse overlaps the triangle. The equation for this area is A = 1/2 πab + bh. This is captioned below the figure.<br />
<br />
The actual area of a picture of a cone is not Randall's approximation, because the sides connect at the points on the ellipse where they can spread widest and form tangents to the ellipse, and such points are a little higher than those which define the major axis. This is most obvious in cases when h is only a little larger than a. The area can be computed to be exactly A = b (a arccos(-a/h)) + √(h<sup>2</sup>-a<sup>2</sup>)).<br />
<br />
The 3D right circular cone commonly depicted by this drawing would have a volume of πr<sup>2</sup>h/3 where r=a=b. The area of the "lower" surface would be πr<sup>2</sup>, while the surface area of the upper conical surface would be πr√(h<sup>2</sup> + r<sup>2</sup>). Neither of these areas can correspond with the caption in the comic, nor does the total surface area (the sum of these two).<br />
<br />
If we do not assume that a = b, this drawing could also depict a right elliptic cone. The volume of the elliptic cone would be <sup>π</sup>/<sub>3</sub>&nbsp;abh. The area of the lower surface would be πab and the area of the curved upper surface would be <br>2a√(b<sup>2</sup>&nbsp;+&nbsp;h<sup>2</sup>)&nbsp;<sub>0</sub>∫<sup>1</sup>&nbsp;√(<sup>a²h²(t²-1)&nbsp;-&nbsp;b²(a²+h²t²)</sup>/<sub>a²(t²-1)(b²+h²)</sub>)&nbsp;dt. <br />
<br />
; Bottom Left - Two ellipses joined vertically, or Cylinder<br />
This illustration is commonly used to depict a 3D cylinder or right circular prism. In this case, the upper ellipse represents the "visible" part of the top circular surface, with its "depth" shorter than its "width" due to foreshortening, and the lower part of the lower ellipse represents the "front" edge of the lower surface; the dotted half of the lower ellipse represents the occluded "back" edge of the lower surface. <br />
<br />
To add to the confusion, the upper ellipse has its major axis labeled 'd' which usually denotes the diameter of a circular surface, while the lower ellipse has its semimajor axis labeled 'r' which similarly denotes a radius, even though the ellipses drawn have neither diameter nor radius. The 'h' denoting height is also used for both rectangles and solid objects. While 'd' in this case is required for the area calculation of the 2D shape, in textbooks only 'r' may be marked and the arrow may be offset at a diagonal rather than in line with any figurative axis, to imply its applicability to any angle of radius.<br />
<br />
The non-overlapping parts of the 2D shape are composed of the rectangle formed by the major axes of the two ellipses and the vertical lines, plus half of the top ellipse and half of the bottom ellipse. The area of the rectangle is dh, and the area of an ellipse with semimajor axis d/2 and semiminor axis r is πrd/2. The total area is A = d(πr/2 + h), which is captioned below the figure.<br />
<br />
A 3D right circular prism (cylinder) would have a volume of πr<sup>2</sup>h and a surface area of 2πr<sup>2</sup> + πdh, or 2πr(r + h) since in this case d = 2r. The area of each flat surface would be πr<sup>2</sup>. If we do not assume d = 2r, then the lateral surface area of the right elliptic cylinder is 4h&nbsp;<sub>0</sub>∫<sup>1</sup>&nbsp;√(<sup>1&nbsp;-&nbsp;t²(1-4r²/d²)</sup>/<sub>1&nbsp;-&nbsp;t²</sub>)&nbsp;dt. The volume is <sup>π</sup>/<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;rdh. <br />
<br />
; Bottom Right - Parallel Hexagon, or Prism<br />
This illustration is commonly used to depict a rectangular prism, with 'b' denoting the 'breadth', 'd' the 'depth' and 'h' the 'height'. However, the labeled angle θ, which is necessary for the area calculation of the 2D shape, would not normally be used in a diagram of a rectangular prism, as all angles are assumed to be right angles. A rhomboidal prism could be accurately described by this diagram with the assumption that the 'base' parallelogram is perpendicular to the 'front' and that the only non-right angle is θ. In that case 'd' would not accurately describe the depth of the solid, which would be d sin θ.<br />
<br />
The area of the 2D shape is comprised of the rectangle at the lower left, the parallelogram above it, and the parallelogram on the right. The area of the rectangle representing the front face of the prism is bh. The area of the upper parallelogram is db&nbsp;sin&nbsp;θ. The area of the right parallelogram is dh&nbsp;cos&nbsp;θ. The equation for this area is A = bh + d(b sinθ + h cosθ) as is given below the figure. <br />
<br />
The surface area of the prism would be 2bh&nbsp;+&nbsp;2db sin θ&nbsp;+&nbsp;2dh. The volume is bdh sin θ. Assuming a 3D shape, θ can be artificially altered by the projection; the assumption could be made that θ is 90 degrees, and sin θ is 1 (and therefore can be eliminated from the formulas), but since θ is marked, such an assumption might not be valid.<br />
<br />
In the history of the development of computer-generated 3D graphics, calculations of the apparent visual area taken up by the projection of a volume may have been useful in occlusion-like optimizations, where each drawn pixel may be passed through many fragment shaders.<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
{{incomplete transcript|Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
:[Four figures in two rows of two, each being a common two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object, with solid lines in front and dotted lines behind. Each figure has some labeled dimensions represented with arrows and a formula underneath indicating its area. Above the four figures is a header:]<br />
:Useful geometry formulas<br />
<br />
:[Top left; A circle with an inscribed concentric ellipse sharing its horizontal diameter. The edge of the ellipse above the major axis is drawn with a dotted line, while the lower edge is drawn with a solid line, similar to textbook depictions of a 3D sphere. The shared radius/semi-major axis to the right of the center is drawn as an arrow and labeled 'r'. ]<br />
:A = πr²<br />
<br />
:[Top right; An ellipse with horizontal major axis, plus two straight lines: one from each end of the major axis, up to a point vertical to the center of the ellipse, so that the major axis of the ellipse (not drawn) and the two lines would form an isosceles triangle with a vertical axis of symmetry. The upper edge of the ellipse above the major axis is drawn with a dotted line, while the lower edge is drawn with a solid line, similar to textbook depictions of a right elliptical cone, or more commonly a right circular cone. The semi-minor axis of the ellipse is drawn with an arrow down from the center and labeled 'a' and the semi-major axis is similarly drawn to the right of the center and labeled 'b'. To the right of the shape, the height of the isosceles triangle is drawn using arrows, and labeled 'h'.]<br />
:A = 1/2 πab + bh<br />
<br />
:[Bottom left; Two ellipses of the same dimensions, with major axes horizontal, drawn vertically one above the other, with vertical lines connecting each end of the major axis of the top ellipse to the corresponding points on the bottom ellipse. The upper edge of the bottom ellipse above the major axis is drawn with a dotted line, while the lower edge is drawn with a solid line, similar to textbook depictions of a right elliptical prism or, more commonly, a right cylinder (circular prism). Inside the shape, the major axis of the upper ellipse is drawn as a double-ended arrow and labeled 'd'. The semi-minor axis of the lower ellipse is drawn as an arrow down from the center and labeled 'r'. To the right of the shape, the length of the vertical lines is replicated using arrows and labeled 'h'. ]<br />
:A = d(πr/2 + h)<br />
<br />
:[Bottom right; Two rectangles of the same vertical and horizontal dimensions, drawn with one offset diagonally to the upper right of the other, with diagonal lines connecting the corresponding vertices, forming a hexagon with opposite sides parallel. The upper right rectangle has its left and bottom sides drawn with dotted lines, and a similar dotted line is used connecting the bottom left corner of the two rectangles, similar to textbook depictions of rhomboid-based right prisms, or more commonly rectangular prisms. Outside the shape, the bottom edge of the lower rectangle is redrawn below the shape with arrows and labeled 'b'. The length of the left edge is similarly redrawn to the left and labeled 'h'. The length of the diagonal line connecting the upper left corners of the two rectangles is similarly redrawn on the top left using arrows and labeled 'd'. The acute angle between the bottom edge of the lower rectangle, and the dotted diagonal connecting the two lower left corners, is labeled 'θ']<br />
:A = bh + d(b sinθ + h cosθ)<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Math]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2492:_Commonly_Mispronounced_Equations&diff=2239862492: Commonly Mispronounced Equations2022-01-11T02:23:24Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
<hr />
<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2492<br />
| date = July 21, 2021<br />
| title = Commonly Mispronounced Equations<br />
| image = commonly_mispronounced_equations.png<br />
| titletext = "Epsihootamoo doopsiquorps" --the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|The general practice needs additional examples. Some equations require further details or clarification.}}<br />
<br />
This comic is a collection of very commonly used physics and mathematical equations, along with their "correct" pronunciations. Equations are normally voiced out loud either by their names ("mass-energy equivalence") or by saying the parts out loud using normal linguistic rules ("E equals m ''c'' squared"). This comic instead asserts that equations are meant to be said out loud like words, using their own set of phonic rules.<br />
<br />
Though the premise may initially seem absurd, some nerds have both the trait of using equations as commonly as others might chat and that of finding it entertaining to coin amusing new words ("input", "pwn"). Saying the equations more rapidly can speed up work or make work seem more enjoyable. This phenomenon is called {{w|clipping (morphology)|clipping}}.<br />
<br />
Using clipped or verbalized forms of equations is sometimes standard practice within a given field. The equation for continuously compounding interest A=Pe<sup>rt</sup> is commonly taught and discussed as the "pert" equation, while the definitions of the main trigonometric functions is similarly taught and discussed as SOH-CAH-TOA: sine&nbsp;= opposite/hypotenuse, cosine&nbsp;= adjacent/hypotenuse, and tangent&nbsp;= opposite/adjacent. These particular "corrections" are all nonstandard, however, occasionally conflicting with more normal readings like "pivnert" for the ideal gas law. The "corrections" are also internally inconsistent, with equal signs and exponents sometimes omitted and sometimes included and intermediate vowels.<br />
<br />
===Equations===<br />
{| class="wikitable" <br />
!Name<br />
!Representation<br />
!Pronounciation <br />
!Explanation <br />
|- <br />
|{{w|Newton's law of universal gravitation}}<br />
|F = G(m₁m₂/r²)<br />
|Fuh-''JAM''-er<br />
|⟨F⟩, gravitational force, is pronounced /f/. ⟨G⟩, the gravitational constant, is pronounced like the soft G /dʒ/ despite the following /æ/, recalling {{link|http://explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php/1989:_IMHO|the .gif controversy}}. The ⟨m⟩s, mass 1 and 2, are elided into a single /m/, and ⟨r⟩, the distance between the masses, is pronounced /ɹ/. The subscripts and exponent are silent.<br />
|- <br />
|{{w|Mass–energy equivalence}}<br />
|E = mc²<br />
|''EM''-cah-too<br />
|⟨E⟩, energy, is pronounced like the short E /ɛ/. ⟨m⟩, mass, is pronounced /m/. ⟨c⟩, the speed of light, is pronounced like the hard C /k/ and its exponent ⟨²⟩ is read as the numeral two /tu/.<br />
|- <br />
|{{w|Pythagorean theorem}}<br />
|a² + b² = c²<br />
|at-''BOOT''-coot<br />
|⟨a⟩, the length of the base, is pronounced like the short A /æ/. ⟨b⟩, the length of the height, is pronounced /b/. ⟨c⟩, the length of the hypotenuse, is pronounced like the hard C /k/. Each exponent ⟨²⟩ is pronounced /t/ as a clipping of "two".<br />
|- <br />
|{{w|Area of a circle}}<br />
|A = πr²<br />
|''APP''-er-too<br />
|⟨A⟩, area, is pronounced like the short A /æ/. ⟨π⟩ is pronounced /p/ after the sound represented by pi in the Greek alphabet. ⟨r⟩, the length of the radius, is pronounced /ɹ/ and its exponent ⟨²⟩ is read as the numeral two /tu/. The resulting pronunciation is similar to the word "{{wiktionary|aperture}}", the diameter of optical equipment such as telescopes and cameras.<br />
|- <br />
|{{w|Entropy_(information_theory)|Shannon entropy}}<br />
|H = −∑pᵢlog(pᵢ)<br />
|Ha-''SPLOG''-pee<br />
|⟨H⟩, entropy, is pronounced /h/. The negative sign is omitted. ⟨∑⟩, the summation sign, is pronounced /s/ after the sound represented by sigma ⟨Σ⟩ in the Greek alphabet. The first ⟨pᵢ⟩ is pronounced /p/ with its subscript elided or left silent. ⟨㏒⟩, the usual mathematical notation for logarithm, is read in full as /lɔɡ/ or /lɑɡ/. The second ⟨pᵢ⟩ is read in full as /pi/ in the usual English manner of handling terminal ⟨i⟩s.<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Ideal gas law}}<br />
|PV = nrt<br />
|''PAV''-nurt<br />
|A variation on the correct formatting PV&nbsp;= nRT and its more common byname "pivnert". ⟨P⟩, pressure, is pronounced /p/. ⟨V⟩, volume, is pronounced /v/. ⟨n⟩, the {{w|amount of substance}}, is pronounced /n/. ⟨r⟩, the {{w|ideal gas constant}}, is pronounced /ɹ/. ⟨t⟩, temperature, is pronounced /t/. <br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Euler's identity}}<br />
|e<sup>iπ</sup> = −1<br />
|''EYE''-pin<br />
|⟨<sup>i</sup>⟩, the {{w|imaginary unit}}, or ⟨e<sup>i</sup>⟩, {{w|Euler's number}} raised to the i power, is pronounced as the long I /aɪ/. ⟨<sup>π</sup>⟩ is pronounced /p/ after the sound represented by pi in the Greek alphabet. ⟨−1⟩ is pronounced /n/, presumably as a severe clipping of "negative one". The silence or elision of the initial e mirrors the usual reading of {{w|Euler's formula}} e<sup>iπ</sup>&nbsp;= cos&nbsp;x&nbsp;+ sin&nbsp;x as "cis&nbsp;x".<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Newton's_laws_of_motion#Newton's_second_law|Newton's 2nd law of motion}}<br />
|F = ma<br />
|''FEE''-mah<br />
|⟨F⟩, the force of motion, is pronounced /f/. ⟨=⟩, the equals sign, is read as the long E /i/. ⟨m⟩, mass, is pronounced /m/. ⟨a⟩, acceleration, is pronounced like the short A /ɑː/. The resulting pronunciation is similar to {{wiktionary|FEMA}}, the United States' {{w|Federal Emergency Management Agency}}.<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Wave equation}} (1D)<br />
|∂²u/∂t² = c(∂²u/∂x²)<br />
|''DOOT'' cah-''DOOX''<br />
|A mistake for the correct equation ∂²u/∂t²&nbsp;= c²(∂²u/∂x²). In the notation marking the second partial derivatives, each ⟨∂²⟩ is pronounced /d/ and each fraction bar and ⟨∂⟩ is silent. Each ⟨u⟩, amplitude, is pronounced /u/. ⟨t⟩, time, is pronounced /t/. ⟨c⟩, speed, is pronounced like the hard C /k/. ⟨x⟩, the distance along the measured dimension, is pronounced /ks/. The exponents are all silent.<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Derivative#Definition|Derivative}}<br />
|f′(x) = lim<sub>h→0</sub> (f(x+h)−f(x))/h<br />
|''FAX''-lim-oh ''FAX''-uh-fox<br />
|⟨f′(x)⟩, the first derivative of a function with respect to an independent variable, is pronounced /fæks/ like {{w|fax machine|the machine}}. ⟨lim<sub>h→0</sub>⟩, the limit as h approaches zero, is pronounced /lɪmoʊ/ like {{w|limousine|the vehicle}}. ⟨f(x+h)⟩, the function with respect to the independent variable and another value an infinitessimally small distance away, is pronounced as /fæksə/ and ⟨f(x)⟩, the function with respect to the independent variable by itself, as /fɑks/ so that together they sound like "fax a fox". The ⟨h⟩ divisor is silent, like most terminal Hs in English.<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Quadratic formula}}<br />
|x = (−b±√(b²−4ac))/2a<br />
|za-''BO''-ba fak-''TOH''-ah<br />
|⟨x⟩, the independent variable, is pronounced /z/ similar to the initial X in the names {{wiktionary|Xerxes}} and {{wiktionary|Xavier}}. The negative sign is omitted. Each ⟨a⟩, ⟨b⟩, and ⟨c⟩, the coefficients of the equation, is pronounced /ɑ/, /b/, and /k/ respectively. The ⟨4⟩ is read as /f/ and the ⟨2⟩ as /t/, with an /oʊ/ added to keep the resulting word closer to "sohcahtoa".<br />
|-<br />
|{{w|Schrödinger equation}} (3D)<br />
|Eψ = (−ℏ²/2m)∇²ψ + (q²/r)ψ<br />
|"Epsihootamoo doopsiquorps"<br />
|An application of the general equation Eψ&nbsp;= Ĥψ when applied to 3 dimensions without regard to time or relativistic effects. The missing 4πε₀ from the divisor in the second (potential energy) term can be handwaved by assuming that the other terms are using units customized for quantum mechanics, rather than standard metric ones. ⟨E⟩, energy, is pronounced /ɛ/. ⟨ψ⟩, the {{w|wave function}}, is read out in full as /psi/, /psaɪ/, or /psə/ the first 2 times and then the last time as /ps/, the sound represented by psi in the Greek alphabet. The negative sign is omitted. ⟨ℏ⟩, {{w|Plank's constant}}, is pronounced /h/. ⟨2⟩ is read as /t/. ⟨m⟩, mass, is pronounced /m/. ⟨{{w|nabla symbol|∇}}⟩, the {{w|Laplace operator}}, is pronounced /d/ after the sound represented by delta in the Greek alphabet. ⟨q⟩ and ⟨r⟩, the charge and distance, are pronounced /kw/ and /ɹ/ following their standard use in English words. The exponents are silent.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
[Each equation is bordered, with a pronunciation guide beneath.]<br />
<br />
Commonly Mispronounced Equations<br />
<br />
'''Row 1'''<br />
<br />
F = G m₁m₂/r² <br><br />
FUH-'''''JAM'''''-ER<br />
<br />
E = mc² <br><br />
'''''EM'''''-CAH-TOO<br />
<br />
a² + b² = c² <br><br />
AT-'''''BOOT'''''-COOT<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Row 2'''<br />
<br />
A = πr² <br><br />
'''''APP'''''-ER-TOO<br />
<br />
H = −Σpᵢlog pᵢ <br><br />
HA-'''''SPLOG'''''-PEE<br />
<br />
PV = nrt <br><br />
'''''PAV'''''-NURT<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Row 3'''<br />
<br />
e<sup>iπ</sup> = −1 <br><br />
'''''EYE'''''-PIN<br />
<br />
F = ma <br><br />
'''''FEE'''''-MAH<br />
<br />
∂²u/∂t² = c ∂²u/∂x² <br><br />
'''''DOOT''''' CAH-'''''DOOX'''''<br />
<br />
<br />
'''Row 4'''<br />
<br />
f'(x) = lim<sub>h→0</sub> f(x+h) − f(x) / h <br><br />
'''''FAX'''''-LIM-OH '''''FAX'''''-UH-FOX<br />
<br />
x = −b ± √(b² − 4ac) / 2a <br><br />
ZA-'''''BO'''''-BA FAK-'''''TOH'''''-AH<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
[[Category:Physics]]<br />
[[Category:Math]]<br />
[[Category: Language]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2450:_Post_Vaccine_Social_Scheduling&diff=2239852450: Post Vaccine Social Scheduling2022-01-11T02:20:41Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
<hr />
<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2450<br />
| date = April 14, 2021<br />
| title = Post Vaccine Social Scheduling<br />
| image = post_vaccine_social_scheduling.png<br />
| titletext = As if these problems weren't NP-hard enough.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
{{incomplete|Created by an NP-SOFT UNVACCINATED MOVIEGOER. Events and people in the comic need to be explained more in detail. Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
This comic is another in a [[:Category:COVID-19|series of comics]] related to the {{w|COVID-19 pandemic}} of the {{w|coronavirus}} {{w|SARS-CoV-2}}, which causes {{w|COVID-19}}, specifically regarding the [[:Category:COVID-19 vaccine|COVID-19 vaccine]].<br />
<br />
The comic shows a timeline of a multitude of (presumably) friends and acquaintances getting two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Due to the recommended delay between shots, as well as the few weeks needed to build antibodies after the second shot, planning get-togethers become complicated by who is free to meet, or not yet.<br />
<br />
The diagram is some form of Scheduling Diagram, maybe akin to a {{w|Gantt chart}}, which helps to coordinate the status of several individual 'processes' (personal vaccination schedules) and demonstrate where dependent activities (meet-ups) are mutually possible.<br />
<br />
Eventually, everyone can start getting together, but during the time where some people have only received one, neither, or only got the second recently, the scheduling is complicated. The complication is increased by the fact that people who have received one or two doses of vaccine, but haven't gone through the whole waiting period, can be expected to have some protection, but possibly not full protection (as represented by the dashed line). In that case, there's the added question of how important it is that the person is at an event, and how much risk the people involved are willing to tolerate. This may be the reason for the "movie" set, in which all participants will have received both doses, but one will not have completed the final waiting period.<br />
<br />
The title text references NP-hardness, a theme that has come up in past comics. {{w|NP-hardness}} describes a particular level of computational difficulty. Scheduling problems are normally NP-hard. But when extra challenges such as having to deal with whether or not people are vaccinated they become even more difficult.<br />
<br />
In this case though, {{w|Critical Path}} dependencies seem trivial enough. Events (vertical lozenges across the dot-marked timelines of those included) are as trivial to validate as possible for those selected to attend. Fixed events in time can be scanned to show all those allowed to participate at that moment. Movable events can be rescheduled until (enough of) those hoped to be included are 'valid'. Complications may arise for those whose presence relies upon [[2441|the status of others]] potentially attending, or the need to maintain time between two events (in either order) with part-shared attendees as a precautionary 'cool-down' isolation. It is not obvious that either of these issues factor in, any more than basic scheduling conflicts would.<br />
<br />
The third person is scheduled for a movie before being fully vaccinated may be a direct reference to [[2441: IMDb Vaccines]], discussing the number of people that need to be vaccinated to record a particular scene. Other than each line's identifying portrait (which are not of the Throne Room characters) no explicit age/vulnerability information is given to justify this, presumably the chart's users are aware of the specifics.<br />
<br />
The third person in the table is included in a movie viewing (for which masks could be worn) shortly after their second immunization, but not included in the dinner group until the full benefit of the vaccine takes hold. CDC guidelines permit vaccinated individuals to visit inside a home or private setting without a mask with one household of unvaccinated people who are not at risk for severe illness. Therefore the movie gathering conforms to CDC recommendations provided that the single unvaccinated person is not at increased risk of severe illness and the movie is in a home or private setting.<br />
<br />
The third person in the table appears to have received the second shot twice. This is possibly a reference to [[2422: Vaccine Ordering]]. Another interpretation is that she lied about her first dose being her second dose to be invited to the movie.<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
{{incomplete transcript|Do NOT delete this tag too soon.}}<br />
:[From top to bottom, eleven people are standing on the left side of the image: Danish, Cueball #1, Hairbun, Black Hat, Ponytail, Science Girl, White Hat, Hairy, Blondie, Cueball #2, and Megan, with even-numbered characters standing slightly further to the left. Each character’s first and second doses of the vaccine are labeled ① and ②, respectively. The time before each character’s first dose is drawn with a grey solid line; the time between their first dose and after they are fully vaccinated (two weeks after their second dose) is drawn with a grey dashed line; the time after they are fully vaccinated is drawn with a black solid line. Black Hat, Science Girl, Blondie, Cueball #2, and Megan have all received their first doses before the comic’s time frame. Social activities are drawn with an ellipse around the top and bottom members, and each participating character is identified with a large filled-in circle on their timeline. The ellipses are labeled :]<br />
: DINNER GAMES MOVIE BIRTHDAY DINNER CABIN<br />
<br />
:[The events that happen, in chronological order (from left to right), are:<br />
<br />
* Cueball #1 receives his first dose;<br />
* Blondie receives her second dose;<br />
* Ponytail receives her first dose;<br />
* Hairy receives his first dose;<br />
* White Hat receives his first dose;<br />
* Danish receives her first dose;<br />
* Black Hat receives his second dose;<br />
* Blondie is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Science Girl receives her second dose;<br />
* Cueball #2 receives his second dose;<br />
* Megan receives her second dose;<br />
* Hairbun receives her first dose (erroneously labeled as ②);<br />
* Ponytail receives her second dose;<br />
* Black Hat is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Black Hat and Blondie go to dinner;<br />
* Danish receives her second dose;<br />
* Cueball #1 receives his second dose;<br />
* Science Girl is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Cueball #2 is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Megan is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Hairy receives his second dose;<br />
* White Hat receives his second dose;<br />
* Science Girl, Blondie, Cueball #2, and Megan play games;<br />
* Ponytail is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Hairbun receives her second dose;<br />
* Hairbun, Black Hat, and Ponytail go to the movies or make a movie (the label is just "Movie");<br />
* Danish is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Cueball #1 is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Hairy is fully vaccinated;<br />
* White Hat is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Danish, Cueball #1, Ponytail, White Hat, and Hairy attend a birthday party;<br />
* Hairbun is fully vaccinated;<br />
* Hairbun and Blondie go to dinner;<br />
* Black Hat, Science Girl, White Hat, Hairy, and Cueball #2 go to a cabin.<br />
<br />
:[Caption below the panel:]<br />
:Post-Vaccine Social Scheduling<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
[[Category: COVID-19]]<br />
[[Category: COVID-19 vaccine]]<br />
[[Category: Timelines]]<br />
[[Category: Programming]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Cueball]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Megan]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Hairy]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Ponytail]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Hairbun]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Blondie]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Science Girl]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring White Hat]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Danish]]<br />
[[Category: Comics featuring Black Hat]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=980:_Money/Prices_in_tables&diff=223980980: Money/Prices in tables2022-01-11T01:56:42Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
<hr />
<div>__NOTOC__<br />
Below are five tables listing the prices of the items in [[980: Money]].<br />
<br />
{{incomplete|Values still need double-checking. Possibly spelling as well.}}<br />
==Dollars==<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Dollar bills<br />
|-<br />
| $1 Bill<br />
| $1<br />
| one dollar is generally believed to have the value of one dollar {{citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| $10 Bill<br />
| $10<br />
| ten dollars are just ten times one dollar,{{citation needed}} see above<br />
|-<br />
| $500 Bill (William McKinley, discontinued)<br />
| $500<br />
| discontinued bills [https://www.fool.com/investing/general/2015/06/11/how-much-is-a-500-bill-worth.aspx might be worth more than their original value] but can still be used as normal currency worth its designated value (in this case 500$)<br />
|-<br />
| $1000 Bill (Grover Cleveland, discontinued)<br />
| $1000<br />
| discontinued bill, see above<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Fruit<br />
|-<br />
| Apples (one dozen) <br />
| $5.68<br />
| the price has since [https://www.in2013dollars.com/Apples/price-inflation/2011-to-2021?amount=1.31 risen due to inflation]<br />
|-<br />
| Oranges (one dozen)<br />
| $3.08<br />
| the price has since [https://www.in2013dollars.com/Oranges,-including-tangerines/price-inflation/2011-to-2021?amount=1.44 risen due to inflation]<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Fast Food<br />
|-<br />
| Dollar Menu item<br />
| $1.00<br />
| most dollar menus cost one dollar,{{citation needed}} hence the name<br />
|-<br />
| Starbucks Coffee<br />
| $2.00<br />
| ten years later, one might for that price get a <s>small</s> [https://realmenuprices.com/starbucks-menu-prices/ tall freshly brewed coffee]<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Average US Restaurant Meals<br />
|-<br />
| Average single US restaurant meal<br />
| $35.65<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Average meal at the 20 costliest San Francisco restaurants<br />
| $85.27<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Dinner for four<br />
|-<br />
| Homemade rice and pinto beans<br />
| $9.26 (With time cost of two hours of shopping, travel, prep, and cleanup: $41.80)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Homemade chicken dinner<br />
| $13.78 (With time cost of two hours of shopping, travel, prep, and cleanup: $46.32)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| McDonalds<br />
| $27.89 (With time cost of 30 minutes travel: $36.03)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Arby’s<br />
| $34.00 (With time cost of 30 minutes travel: $42.13)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Chili’s<br />
| $69.64 (With time cost of 30 minutes travel: $77.78)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Outback Steakhouse<br />
| $109.82 (With time cost of 30 minutes travel: $117.96)<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Vehicles<br />
|-<br />
| Low-end bicycle<br />
| $190<br />
| [https://www.google.com/search?q=low-end+bicycle+price a quick google search] will tell us that this is a fairly realistic price still<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Clothes<br />
|-<br />
| Men's suit<br />
| $400<br />
| [https://www.google.com/search?q=men's+suit+price a quick google search] will tell us that this is a fairly realistic price, although there are much cheaper suits out there<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Debt<br />
|-<br />
| Daily interest on average credit card debt<br />
| $5.63<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Daily income<br />
|-<br />
| Median household daily income<br />
| $136.28<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Taxes<br />
| $32.16<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| After-tax<br />
| $104.12<br />
| it is just the taxes subtracted from the median household daily income<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Game Consoles<br />
|-<br />
| PS3<br />
| $250<br />
| [https://www.google.com/search?q=playstation+3+price a quick google search] will tell us that their demand has decreased significantly since other consoles (PS4, PS5) were released and there are no more new games being developed for the Playstation 3<br />
|-<br />
| Xbox 360<br />
| $200<br />
| [https://www.google.com/search?q=xbox+360+price a quick google search] will tell us that their demand has decreased significantly since other consoles (Xbox One, Xbox Series X, and Xbox Series S) were released and there are no more new games being developed for the Xbox 360<br />
|-<br />
| Wii<br />
| $150<br />
| [https://www.google.com/search?q=nintendo+wii+price a quick google search] will tell us that their demand has decreased significantly since other consoles (Wii U, Nintendo Switch) were released and there are no more new games being developed for the Nintendo Wii<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="9"|Electronics<br />
|-<br />
| Kindle Fire<br />
| $199<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as ebook readers become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| Basic iPad<br />
| $499<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as tablets become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| iPad + 3G + a year of data<br />
| $869<br />
| as above; also 3G internet is being gradually shut down across the world ([https://eu.usatoday.com/story/tech/2021/10/22/wireless-service-3-g-shutdown-coming-soon/8538388002/ USofA], [https://blog.telegeography.com/3gs-sun-is-setting-in-europe Europe]) so it won't be easy getting 3G internet for a whole other year (information as of December 2021)<br />
|-<br />
| Basic Macbook Air<br />
| $999<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as laptops become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| Netbook<br />
| $249.99<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as laptops become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| iPod Nano<br />
| $129<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as music players become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| Mac Mini<br />
| $599<br />
| like video game consoles, other electronics such as desktop PCs become less demanded over time due to newer models and the discontinuation of support<br />
|-<br />
| Comcast cable internet for a year ($59.99/month)<br />
| $719.88<br />
| Comcast has changed its name to Xfinity since the comic came out<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Books<br />
|-<br />
| Paperback book<br />
| $6.80<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Hardcover book<br />
| $32.27<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Audio book<br />
| $50.42<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00I15SB16/ref=r_kdia_h_i_gl Kindle]<br />
| $79.00<br />
| nowadays the price ranges from 24$ up to a little over 300$, depending on the model<br />
|-<br />
| New video game<br />
| $49.99<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Kindle keyboard + 3G<br />
| $139<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Loose change<br />
|-<br />
| Loose change value per pound<br />
| $12.80<br />
| The chart depicts 12 blocks instead of 13.<br />
|-<br />
| Loose change with no quarters<br />
| $5.40<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| One-gallon jug of loose change<br />
| $270<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Loose change with no pennies<br />
| $17.40<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual value of pennies received in change (at one daily cash purchase)<br />
| $7.30<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Pet ownership (Based on ASPCA estimations)<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of rabbit ownership<br />
| $730<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of dog ownership<br />
| $695<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of cat ownership<br />
| $670<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of fish ownership<br />
| $35<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of bird ownership<br />
| $200<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of small mammal ownership<br />
| $300<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Cell phone bill<br />
|-<br />
| Traditional cell phone average monthly fee<br />
| $77.36<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Traditional cell phone average annual bill<br />
| $928.30<br />
| would be $928.32 since it is just the monthly fee times twelve<br />
|-<br />
| Smartphone average monthly fee<br />
| $110.30<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Smartphone average annual bill<br />
| $1,320<br />
| would be $1,323.60 since it is just the monthly fee times twelve<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Worker/CEO comparison<br />
|-<br />
| 1965 production worker average hourly wage<br />
| $19.61<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| 2007 production worker average hourly wage<br />
| $19.71<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Typical 1965 CEO pay for the same period<br />
| $490.31<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|-<br />
| Typical 2007 CEO pay for the same period<br />
| $5,419.97<br />
| {{Actual citation needed}}<br />
|}<br />
</div><br />
<br />
==Thousands==<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Typical household net worth by head of household’s age in 1984<br />
|-<br />
| <35 years<br />
| $11,680<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 35-44 years<br />
| $72,090<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 45-54 years<br />
| $115,060<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 55-64 years<br />
| $149,240<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| >65 years<br />
| $122,100<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Typical household net worth by head of household’s age in 2009<br />
|-<br />
| <35 years<br />
| $3,710<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 35-44 years<br />
| $40,140<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 45-54 years<br />
| $103,040<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 55-64 years<br />
| $164,270<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| >65 years<br />
| $172,820<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Raising a child to age 17<br />
|-<br />
| Upper income <br />
| $302,860<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Middle income<br />
| $206,920<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Lower income <br />
| $150,380<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="5"|Vacations<br />
|-<br />
| All-inclusive one-week trip for two to St. Lucia resort from New England (incl. flights)<br />
| $3,204<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Twenty week-long Hawaiian vacations<br />
| $136,020<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Typical week-long Hawaii trip for two from US West Coast (incl. flights)<br />
| $6,801<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Typical weekend Hawaii trip for two from US West Coast incl. flights)<br />
| $2,863<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="5"|School Prices<br />
|-<br />
| Estimated one-year Hogwarts cost (incl. tuition)<br />
| $43,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Seven-year Hogwarts degree<br />
| $301,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average community college tuition<br />
| $10,340 (One year $2,580)<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Average in-state university tuition<br />
| $28,920 (One year $7,230)<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="8"|Income per capita (2005)<br />
|-<br />
| United States 2005 per capita income<br />
| $32,360<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Switzerland 2005 per capita income<br />
| $29,910<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Germany 2005 per capita income<br />
| $27,550<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| UK 2005 per capita income<br />
| $23,240<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| France 2005 per capita income<br />
| $16,400<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| China 2005 per capita income<br />
| $3,540<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Brazil 2005 per capita income<br />
| $5,540<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="3"|Houses<br />
|-<br />
| Small rural house<br />
| $100,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Typical new home<br />
| $224,910<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="3"|Health<br />
|-<br />
| Average individual health insurance annual premium<br />
| $5,430<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Cancer treatment including chemo<br />
| $117,260<br />
| The chart depicts 115 blocks instead of 117.<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="8"|Annual Household Costs<br />
|-<br />
| A daily pack of cigarettes for a year (NJ)<br />
| $3,050<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| One Starbucks latte per day<br />
| $1,820<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average smartphone annual cost<br />
| $1,320<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost of car ownership<br />
| $3,650<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Typical annual household food spending<br />
| $5,650<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average household CC debt<br />
| $9,960<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost to carry that debt<br />
| $2,090<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="13"|Typical annual housing cost for various cities (based on military's Basic Allowance for Housing for an E1 servicemember with no dependents)<br />
|-<br />
| NYC<br />
| $25,416<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| San Francisco<br />
| $21,888<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Boston<br />
| $18,216<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Los Angeles<br />
| $17,640<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Washington DC<br />
| $16,380<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Chicago<br />
| $13,664<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Worcester<br />
| $12,456<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Houston<br />
| $11,888<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Minneapolis<br />
| $10,908<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Detroit<br />
| $10,080<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Salt Lake City<br />
| $9,108<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Scranton<br />
| $8,604<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="4"|Prince William and Kate Middleton's Wedding<br />
|- <br />
| Prince William and Kate Middleton's wedding cake<br />
| $78,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Kate Middleton's wedding dress<br />
| $350,000<br />
| This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $375,000.<br />
|- <br />
| Flower cost for Prince William and Kate Middleton's wedding<br />
| $800,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="10"|Value of an investment of $1,000/year <br />
(NOT changing with inflation) for 30 years at 5% annual interest<br />
|-<br />
| 1 year<br />
| $1,000<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 5 years<br />
| $5,526<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 10 years<br />
| $12,850<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 15 years<br />
| $21,580<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 20 years<br />
| $33,070<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 25 years<br />
| $47,730<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 30 years<br />
| $66,440<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 30 years ($30,000 saved in mattress)<br />
| $30,000<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 30 years ($1,000/yr at a 4% real return (long-term stock + dividend average)<br />
| $56,080<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="3"|Value of investment (accounting for inflation)<br />
|-<br />
| 30 years<br />
| $27,370<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| 30 years ($30,000 saved in mattress)<br />
| $12,360<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="4"|Average Vehicle Costs<br />
|-<br />
| Average used car<br />
| $8,910<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average new car<br />
| $27,230<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| High-end bicycle <br />
| $1,500<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="15"|Total cost to buy and own selected vehicles for five years<br />
|-<br />
| Honda Insight<br />
| $27,874<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Toyota Prius<br />
| $38,771<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jeep Patriot<br />
| $35,425<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Honda Fit<br />
| $28,745<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| BMW Z4<br />
| $61,312<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ford Explorer<br />
| $45,524<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Toyota Camry<br />
| $34,697<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| smart fortwo<br />
| $29,629<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Honda CR-V<br />
| $35,183<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Chevy Volt<br />
| $42,180<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Hyundai Sonata<br />
| $34,644<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ford F-150<br />
| $48,734<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Nissan Cube<br />
| $29,383<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Porsche 911<br />
| $91,590<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="7"|Total cost to buy and own selected vehicles for five years if gas were $10/gallon<br />
|-<br />
| Toyota Prius<br />
| $48,990<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Honda Fit<br />
| $45,233<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ford Explorer<br />
| $69,076<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| smart fortwo<br />
| $45,058<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Chevy Volt<br />
| $50,612<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ford F-150<br />
| $77,111<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="8"|Typical annual household income<br />
|-<br />
| Bottom 20%<br />
| $10,200<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Second 20%<br />
| $24,800<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Middle 20%<br />
| $44,400<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Fourth 20%<br />
| $76,100<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Top 10%<br />
| $201,100<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Top 1%<br />
| $822,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Top 1/500th<br />
| $2,080,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="6"|Median US household income<br />
|-<br />
| Median US household income<br />
| $51,570<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| After-tax<br />
| $39,170<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Taxes<br />
| $12,100<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total lifetime income from ages 25-65 at $50,000/year after 25% taxes (including Social Security)<br />
| $1,500,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Cost per household served by US Rural Utilities Service program to expand broadband access<br />
| $359,790<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="13"|If I had $1000000 (Cost of the items the singer in "If I had $1000000" would buy to win your love: $263,330)<br />
|-<br />
| Furniture<br />
| $21,160<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Plymouth Reliant<br />
| $3,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Tree fort<br />
| $15,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Llama<br />
| $2,120<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Joseph Merrick's remains<br />
| N/A (Held in Royal London Hospital collection and not available for purchase)<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| House<br />
| $224,820<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Tiny fridge<br />
| $99.08<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Gourmet pre-wrapped sausages (2)<br />
| $34.48<br />
|<br />
|- <br />
| Kraft Dinner (two double servings)<br />
| $3.06<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Expensive ketchup<br />
| $10.75<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Faux fur coat<br />
| $198.00<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Limo ride to the store<br />
| $186.59<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="5"|Luxuries<br />
|-<br />
| [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Opulence_Sundae Golden Opulence ice cream sundae]<br />
| $1,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Waist deep half-room ball pit<br />
| $2,400<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| All 30 bestselling game consoles (refurb, eBay)<br />
| $2,640<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Initial seat on Virgin Galactic suborbital flight<br />
| $200,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
!rowspan="3"|Video Games<br />
|-<br />
| Typing F-U-N-D-S<br />
| $10,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Daily sales of [http://www.minecraft.net/ Minecraft]<br />
| $193,500<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
</div><br />
<br />
==Millions==<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Dr. Evil<br />
|-<br />
| Amount Dr. Evil thought he was demanding from the 1997 world<br />
| $6,630,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Amount he was demanding<br />
| $1,380,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Video Games<br />
|-<br />
| Minecraft sales by October 2011<br />
| $56,780,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|William and Kate's wedding<br />
|-<br />
| Flowers<br />
| $800,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Security<br />
| $20,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total cost<br />
| $80,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Human Values<br />
|-<br />
| Amount needed to live comfortably off investments<br />
| $4,090,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| EPA value of a human life<br />
| $8,120,000<br />
| The chart depicts 10 blocks instead of 8.<br />
|-<br />
| Six Million Dollar Man (2011 dollars)<br />
| $29,870,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 50,000 salary for 40 years after 25% taxes<br />
| $1,500,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Lifetime cost to avoid changing your oil by abandoning your car and buying a new one whenever you hit 5.000 miles<br />
| $3,270,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Corporation Expenses<br />
|-<br />
| 30-second Super Bowl ad slot<br />
| $3,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost to run Wikipedia<br />
| $18,500,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Loss in NewsCorp value over hacking scandal<br />
| $750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Vehicles<br />
|-<br />
| Most expensive production car (Bugatti Veyron)<br />
| $2,400,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Most expensive car ever sold (1957 Ferrari 250)<br />
| $16,390,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Marginal cost to launch one shuttle<br />
| $450,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total shuttle program per launch<br />
| $1,451,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| One B-2 bomber<br />
| $2,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Structures<br />
|-<br />
| Large city office building<br />
| $100,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Dubai Fountain<br />
| $224,540,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Burj Khalifa<br />
| $1,521,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| New Yankee Stadium<br />
| $1,545,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="12"|Rare Items<br />
|-<br />
| Qianlong Chinese vase sold in 2010<br />
| $83,710,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Leonardo’s Codex Leicester (bought by Bill Gates)<br />
| $45,930,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Estimated value of first-edition Gutenberg Bible<br />
| $34,610,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 1933 Double Eagle coin (All destroyed uncirculated save a few stolen from the US Mint)<br />
| $9,330,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Treskilling Yellow postage stamp (At $50 billion/lb possibly the world’s most expensive thing by weight)<br />
| $2,780,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 1297 Magna Carta original copy signed by Edward I<br />
| $21,890,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Painting from The Card Players series (rumor)<br />
| $250,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Willem de Kooning’s “Woman III” (2006 auction bought by David Geffen)<br />
| $168,780,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jackson Pollock’s “No. 5, 1948” (2006 auction bought by David Geffen)<br />
| $153,440,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Airbus A380<br />
| $264,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Mona Lisa assessed value<br />
| $730,660,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Bitcoins<br />
|-<br />
| Market value of all Bitcoins as of 11/2011<br />
| $22,819,797<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Market value of all Bitcoins as at July 2011 peak price<br />
| $210,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="9"|Millionaires<br />
|-<br />
| Darrell Issa (R-CA) net worth<br />
| $304,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jane Harman (D-CA) net worth<br />
| $294,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| John Kerry (D-MA) net worth<br />
| $239,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Mitt Romney net worth<br />
| $210,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jon Huntsman net worth<br />
| $40,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average net worth of US senator<br />
| $13,400,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Average net worth of US representative<br />
| $4,900,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| A billionaire<br />
| $1,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Per US resident<br />
|-<br />
| $1 per US resident<br />
| $312,620,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| $1 per US household<br />
| $117,290,000<br />
| The chart depicts 138 blocks instead of 117.<br />
|-<br />
| $10 from every US resident<br />
| $3,326,200,000<br />
| The chart depicts 3126 blocks instead of 3326.<br />
|-<br />
| $10 from every US household<br />
| $1,179,180,000<br />
| The chart depicts 854 blocks instead of 1179.<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Raptors<br />
|-<br />
| One F-22 raptor<br />
| $154,500,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| One velociraptor (25% of Jurassic Park production budget amortized over three velociraptors)<br />
| $1,930,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="8"|Professional rapper net worth<br />
|-<br />
| 50 Cent<br />
| $100,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 50 Cent (stage name)<br />
| $0.50<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| 50 Cent (adjusted for inflation)<br />
| $0.70<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Birdman<br />
| $100,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Dr Dre<br />
| $125,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jay-Z<br />
| $450,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Diddy<br />
| $475,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|J.K. Rowling<br />
|-<br />
| J.K. Rowling<br />
| $1,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| J.K. Rowling had she become a rapper (Professional assessment by rapper/geek culture expert MC Frontalot)<br />
| $82,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Hurricanes<br />
|-<br />
| Annual hurricane forecast R&D funding<br />
| $20,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Hurricane forecast improvement funding since 1989<br />
| $440,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Economic savings—during Hurricane Irene alone—due to limiting evacuations made possible by recent forecast advances<br />
| $700,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Prizes<br />
|-<br />
| $64,000 in 1955 when "The $64,000 Question" first aired<br />
| $528,310<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| £1,000,000 in 1998 when the UK "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire" aired<br />
| $2,270,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| $1,000,000 in 1999 when the US "Who Wants to Be a Millionaire" aired<br />
| $1,330,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| $1,000,000 in 1955 when the TV show "The Millionaire" aired<br />
| $8,250,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| $1,000,000 in 1931 when the film "The Millionaire" opened<br />
| $14,530,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Elections===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Person !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| 2012 presidential fundraising || $188,260,000<br />
|-<br />
| Herman Cain || $5,380,000<br />
|-<br />
| Jon Huntsman || $4,510,000<br />
|-<br />
| Michele Bachmann || $9,870,000<br />
|-<br />
| Ron Paul || $12,790,000<br />
|-<br />
| Rick Perry || $17,200,000<br />
|-<br />
| Mitt Romney || $32,610,000<br />
|-<br />
| Barack Obama || $88,420,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $17,480,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Person !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| 2008 presidential campaign fundraising ||$1,860,390,000<br />
|-<br />
| Excluding candidate Lee L. Mercer, Jr of Houston, who claimed, in his combined FEC filings, || $900,005,507 in fundraising and $900,006,431 in campaign spending.<br />
|-<br />
| Ron Paul || $32,480,000<br />
|-<br />
| John Edwards || $64,410,000<br />
|-<br />
| Rudy Giuliani || $66,520,000<br />
|-<br />
| Mitt Romney || $116,730,000<br />
|-<br />
| Barack Obama ||$799,670,000<br />
|-<br />
| John McCain || $394,280,000<br />
|-<br />
| Hilary Clinton || $259,050,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $127,250,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Person !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| 2004 presidential campaign fundraising || $1,006,810,000<br />
|-<br />
| Howard Dean || $61,620,000<br />
|-<br />
| Wesley Clark || $34,620,000<br />
|-<br />
| John Edwards || $39,310,000<br />
|-<br />
| John Kerry || $352,090,000<br />
|-<br />
| George W. Bush || $429,660,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $89,510,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Person !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| 2000 presidential campaign fundraising || $805,120,000<br />
|-<br />
| Pat Buchanan || $37,440,000<br />
|-<br />
| John McCain || $75,180,000<br />
|-<br />
| Bill Bradley || $65,680,000<br />
|-<br />
| Steve Forbes || $114,400,000 *The Money Chart incorrectly reads $11,440,000<br />
|-<br />
| Al Gore || $170,520,000<br />
|-<br />
| George W. Bush || $247,100,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $94,800,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===2010 midterm elections fundraising===<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Party !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| Democrats || $815,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Republicans || $587,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===2011-2012 Campaign donations by industry===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Industry !! To Democrats (approx) !! To Republicans (approx) !! To Other (approx) !! Total Funds donated<br />
|-<br />
| Finance industry || $47,000,000 || $68,000,000 || $7,000,000 || $122,900,000<br />
|-<br />
| Organized labor || $14,000,000 || $2,000,000 || $2,000,000 || $18,720,000<br />
|-<br />
| Energy industry || $6,000,000 || $21,000,000 || $0 || $26,680,000<br />
|-<br />
| Lawyers and general lobbyists || $39,000,000 || $19,000,000 || $0 || $57,590,000<br />
|-<br />
| Health industry || $19,000,000 || $23,000,000 || $0 || $42,727,000<br />
|-<br />
| Electronics and communication industry || $21,000,000 || $12,000,000 || $7,000,000 || $32,420,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Inaugurations===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Thing !! Price<br />
|-<br />
| Barack Obama’s 2009 inauguration || $174,100,000<br />
|-<br />
| Festivities (private donors) || $46,400,000<br />
|-<br />
| Federal + state + local government (mainly security) || $127,700,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Thing !! Price<br />
|-<br />
| George Bush’s 2005 inauguration || $178,600,000<br />
|-<br />
| Festivities (private donors) || $47,800,000<br />
|-<br />
| Federal + state + local government (mainly security) || $130,800,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Past presidential campaign fundraising===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Campaign Year !! Funds raised<br />
|-<br />
| 1996 || $559,810,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1992 || $521,480,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 || $606,300,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1984 || $429,860,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 || $434,220,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1976 || $664,160,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Value of a solid gold toilet (626 lbs) by year===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Year !! Value (Approximate)<br />
|-<br />
| 1967 || $2,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1968 || $2,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1969 || $2,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1970 || $2,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1971 || $2,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1972 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1973 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1974 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1975 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1976 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1977 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1978 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1979 || $9,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 || $15,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1981 || $10,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1982 || $8,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1983 || $9,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1984 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1985 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1986 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1987 || $8,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1989 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1990 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1991 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1992 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1993 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1994 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1995 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1996 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1997 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1998 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1999 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2000 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2002 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2003 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2004 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2006 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2007 || $8,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2008 || $8,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || $10,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2010 || $13,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2011 || $15,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Value of a carry-on suitcase full of $100 bills (30,00 ct, 60lbs)===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Year !! Value (Approximate)<br />
|-<br />
| 1967 || $20,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1968 || $19,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1969 || $18,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1970 || $17,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1971 || $16,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1972 || $16,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1973 || $15,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1974 || $13,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1975 || $12,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1976 || $12,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1977 || $11,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1978 || $10,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1979 || $9,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 || $8,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1981 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1982 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1983 || $7,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1984 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1985 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1986 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1987 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 || $6,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1989 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1990 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1991 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1992 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1993 || $5,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1994 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1995 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1996 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1997 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1998 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1999 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2000 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2002 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2003 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2004 || $4,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2006 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2007 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2008 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2010 || $3,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2011 || $3,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
</div><br />
<br />
==Billions==<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><br />
<br />
===Harry Potter movie franchise total revenue===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Harry Potter movie franchise total revenue || $21,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Treasure found in a temple in India in 2011 || $22,000,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Box office revenue===<br />
<br />
Adjusted for monetary inflation but not ticket price inflation<br />
Highlighted [sic]: films that earned more than 2009's ''Avatar''<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Year !! Movie !! Revenue !! Highlighted<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || ''Avatar'' || $783,510,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2008 || ''The Dark Knight'' || $547,520,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2003 || ''Shrek 2'' || $516,610,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1999 || ''The Phantom Menace'' || $572,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1997 || ''Titanic'' || $827,260,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1994 || ''The Lion King'' || $625,810,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1993 || ''Jurassic Park'' || $625,810,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1984 || ''Ghostbusters'' || $507,720,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1983 || ''Return of the Jedi'' || $686,710,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1982 || ''E.T.'' || $996,580,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 || ''The Empire Strikes Back'' || $778,530,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1977 || ''Star Wars'' || $1,681,000,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1975 || ''Jaws'' || $1,067,510,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1973 || ''The Exorcist'' || $1,019,000,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1965 || ''The Sound of Music'' || $1,144,920,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1962 || ''101 Dalmatians'' || $1,131,310,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1960 || ''Ben-Hur'' || $561,090,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1957 || ''The Ten Commandments'' || $532,570,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1943 || ''Bambi'' || $1,391,000,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1942 || ''Fantasia'' || $1,146,000,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1940 || ''Gone With the Wind'' || $3,157,000,000 || Yes<br />
|-<br />
| 1938 || ''Snow White'' || $2,841,700,000 || Yes<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Charity===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Amount given<br />
|-<br />
| US annual charitable giving || $294,850,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To religious organizations || $102,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To educational organizations || $42,240,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To foundations || $33,450,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To human services || $26,850,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To societal benefit organizations || $24,570,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To health organizations || $23,140,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To international affairs || $15,980,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To arts and culture || $13,460,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| To animals and environment || $6,750,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $6,410,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====Type of giving:====<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Type !! Amount given<br />
|-<br />
| Individual giving || $214,650,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Foundation grantmaking || $41,560,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Bequests || $23,140,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Corporate giving || $15,500,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Gates Foundation total giving since 1994===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Amount given<br />
|-<br />
| Gates Foundation total giving since 1994 || $25,360,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Global health || ~$12,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| US || ~$4,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Developments || ~$3,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Grants || ~$1,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Missing || ~$5,000,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Book publishing industry revenue===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Genre !! Revenue<br />
|-<br />
| Book publishing industry revenue || $28,320,000,000 (Sum of genres is $29.39 billion, 1 block more than depicted)<br />
|-<br />
| Romance || $1,380,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Trade books || $14,130,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| K-12 || $5,570,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Professional || $3,750,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Higher education || $4,560,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Video game industry revenue===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Revenue<br />
|-<br />
| Video game industry revenue || $48,900,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| United States || $18,830,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Education===<br />
{| class= "wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Student loans outstanding || $955,800,000,000 (This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $956,800,000,000)<br />
|-<br />
| Federal student loans || $792,900,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Defaulted Federal student loans (Private total unknown) || $65,020,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Private student loans || $163,900,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total spending on primary and secondary education in the US || $612,470,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Teacher Salaries || $295,810,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total annual higher education spending in the US || $355,110,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Harvard University revenue===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Revenue<br />
|-<br />
| Tuition, donations, and fees || $1,425,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Investments || $7,900,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
In other words, if Harvard eliminated tuition, it would mean roughly a 15% budget cut.<br />
<br />
===Education foundations===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Foundation !! Amount given<br />
|-<br />
| Gates Foundation || $36,700,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| INGKA Foundation || $36,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Howard Hughes Medical Institute || $14,800,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Ford Foundation || $13,800,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation || $6,100,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Endowments of the 63 wealthiest universities===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! University !! Endowments<br />
|-<br />
| Endowments of the 63 wealthiest universities || $277,570,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Harvard || $32,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Yale || $19,400,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Princeton || $17,010,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| U of Texas || $16,610,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Stanford || $16,500,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| MIT || $9,900,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Columbia || $7,800,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| U of Michigan || $7,800,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Texas A&M || $7,030,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Northwestern || $7,030,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| The other 53 || $136,490,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Corporate revenue===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Corporation !! Revenue !! Profit !! Loss<br />
|-<br />
| Walmart || $421,800,000,000 || $16,390,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| ExxonMobil || $354,700,000,000 || $30,460,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Chevron || $196,300,000,000 || $19,020,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Fannie Mae || $153,800,000,000 (the chart depicts 156 blocks instead of 154) || || $14,010,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| GE || $151,600,000,000 (the chart depicts 151 blocks instead of 152) || $11,640,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Berkshire Hathaway || $136,100,000,000 ([[Randall]] rounded down from 136.185 billion) || $12,970,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| PepsiCo || $57,840,000,000 || $6,320,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Coca-Cola || $35,840,000,000 (this appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $35,120,000,000) || $11,800,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| VISA || $8,100,000,000 || $2,700,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| MasterCard || $5,500,000,000 (the chart depicts 5 blocks instead of 6) || $1,850,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| General Motors || $135,600,000,000 (the chart depicts 135 blocks instead of 136) || $6,170,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Ford || $129,000,000,000 || $6,560,000,000 (the chart depicts 6 blocks instead of 7) ||<br />
|-<br />
| Chrysler || $44,950,000,000 (this appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $41,950,000,000) || || $653,000,000 (this appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $652,000,000)<br />
|-<br />
| AT&T || $124,600,000,000 (the chart depicts 126 blocks instead of 125) || $19,860,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Verizon || $106,560,000,000 (the chart depicts 106 blocks instead of 107) || $2,550,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Bank of America || $134,200,000,000 (the chart depicts 135 blocks instead of 134) || || $2,240,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| JP Morgan Chase || $115,480,000,000 || $17,370,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Citigroup || $111,060,000,000 || $10,600,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| AIG || $104,420,000,000 || $7,790,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| HP || $126,000,000,000 || $8,780,000,000 (this appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $8,760,000,000) ||<br />
|-<br />
| Apple || $65,230,000,000 || $14,010,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Microsoft || $62,480,000,000 || $18,760,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Google || $29,320,000,000 || $8,510,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Combined annual profit of the Fortune 500 companies || || $708,600,000,000 ||<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US health care spending===<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|US cancer spending<br />
|-<br />
| US spending on lung cancer treatment<br />
| $11,310,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| US spending on tobacco marketing<br />
| $13,600,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| US spending on all cancer treatment<br />
| $106,870,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| US spending on cigarettes<br />
| $91,660,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 93 blocks instead of 92.<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="10"|US health care spending (2005 data)<br />
|-<br />
| Private insurance<br />
| $785,900,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Out-of-pocket<br />
| $282,260,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 250 blocks instead of 282.<br />
|-<br />
| Other private spending<br />
| $79,000,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 111 blocks instead of 79.<br />
|-<br />
| Total private spending<br />
| $1,147,050,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Medicare<br />
| $387,070,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Medicaid<br />
| $351,980,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other government spending<br />
| $219,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total Government spending<br />
| $958,950,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $2,106,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===NCAA budget===<br />
$5,640,000,000<br />
<br />
===Total annual tax breaks to the five largest oil companies===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Combined pay at Wall St. banks and securities firms || $135,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Mobile computing annual sales || $220,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Online spending in 2009 || $251,070,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Total annual tax breaks to the five largest oil companies || $2,100,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| US annual oil and gas subsidies || $41,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Ethanol subsidies || $5,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Combined annual profits of the five largest oil companies || $36,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Combined annual profits of the ten largest health insurance companies || $12,870,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2010 lobbying || $3,560,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 lobbying || $2,750,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2000 lobbying || $2,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| One B-2 bomber || $2,500,000,000 || The chart depicts 2 blocks instead of 3.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US R&D===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| US annual corporate R&D || $334,490,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Information technology || $46,560,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Scientific technical, or professional services || $31,060,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Manufacturing industries (Unlabelled on the money chart) || $236,151,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $20,710,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US GDP===<br />
<br />
The combined economic value of all goods and services produced in a year<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Value<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|US GDP<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $14,545,950,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Government<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $1,980,640,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Real estate<br />
|-<br />
| Non-rental real estate<br />
| $1,737,500,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 1736 blocks instead of 1738.<br />
|-<br />
| Rental and leasing<br />
| $187,610,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $1,925,210,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="10"|Nondurable Goods<br />
|-<br />
| Food, beverage, and tobacco<br />
| $212,330,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Chemicals<br />
| $223,050,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Petroleum and coal<br />
| $123,630,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Apparel<br />
| $12,050,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 14 blocks instead of 12.<br />
|-<br />
| Paper products<br />
| $57,800,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 62 blocks instead of 58.<br />
|-<br />
| Plastics and rubber products<br />
| $58,410,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Textile mills<br />
| $18,130,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 12 blocks instead of 18.<br />
|-<br />
| Printing and related supports<br />
| $33,790,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $739,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="13"|Durable Goods<br />
|-<br />
| Computers and electronics<br />
| $212,640,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Metal products<br />
| $125,590,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Machinery<br />
| $116,110,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Wood products<br />
| $21,530,000,000<br />
| Rounded down to 21 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Furniture<br />
| $24,930,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other transportation equipment<br />
| $93,440,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Motor vehicles, trailers, and parts<br />
| $80,560,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Mineral products<br />
| $39,360,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Metals<br />
| $44,710,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Miscellaneous<br />
| $81,390,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Electrical equipment and components<br />
| $53,260,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $898,420,000,000<br />
| This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $893,420,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Finance and insurance<br />
|-<br />
| Federal Reserve banks and credit intermediaries<br />
| $529,540,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Insurance<br />
| $437,340,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Investments<br />
| $180,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Funds and trusts<br />
| $59,550,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $1,207,030,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="8"|Professional and business services<br />
|-<br />
| Waste management<br />
| $39,870,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Administrative and support services<br />
| $358,110,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Legal services<br />
| $225,830,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Computer systems design and service<br />
| $174,730,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Corporate management<br />
| $253,950,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other professional or technical services<br />
| $700,250,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $1,752,750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Health and education<br />
|-<br />
| Social assistance<br />
| $93,750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ambulatory health care services<br />
| $529,750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Hospitals<br />
| $466,390,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Educational services<br />
| $159,580,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $1,294,580,000,000 (This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $1,249,580,000,000)<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Utilities<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $276,210,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Other services<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $345,540,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Construction<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $553,750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Mining<br />
|-<br />
| Mining (other than oil and gas)<br />
| $50,380,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Mining support<br />
| $51,270,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Oil and gas<br />
| $145,990,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $248,080,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Agriculture<br />
|-<br />
| Farms<br />
| $107,140,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Forestry, fishing, and related<br />
| $30,080,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $137,120,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Arts and entertainment<br />
|-<br />
| Food service<br />
| $285,480,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Performing arts, sports, and museums<br />
| $73,040,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Amusements, gambling, and general recreation<br />
| $73,040,000,000<br />
| This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $58,110,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Accomodation [sic]<br />
| $111,990,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $528,620,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Information<br />
|-<br />
| Information and data processing<br />
| $78,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Publishing (including software)<br />
| $152,170,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Film, video, and sound recording<br />
| $61,610,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Broadcasting and telecommunications<br />
| $366,560,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $658,630,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="10"|Transportation and storage<br />
|-<br />
| Warehousing and storage<br />
| $40,590,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Water<br />
| $14,730,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Air<br />
| $36,770,000,000<br />
| This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $63,770,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Rail<br />
| $31,730,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Truck<br />
| $116,520,000,000<br />
| Rounded down to 116 blocks<br />
|-<br />
| Transit and land passenger<br />
| $24,110,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 22 blocks instead of 24<br />
|-<br />
| Pipeline<br />
| $12,360,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other transport<br />
| $97,560,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $401,280,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Billionaires===<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Person<br />
! Networth<br />
! Ten Richest Ranking<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="14"|Technology<br />
|-<br />
| Carlos Slim Helú and family<br />
| $74,000,000,000<br />
| First<br />
|-<br />
| Bill Gates<br />
| $56,000,000,000<br />
| Second<br />
|-<br />
| Larry Ellison<br />
| $39,500,000,000<br />
| Fifth<br />
|-<br />
| Larry Page<br />
| $19,800,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Sergey Brin<br />
| $19,800,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Jeff Bezos<br />
| $18,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Steve Ballmer<br />
| $14,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Mark Zuckerberg<br />
| $13,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Paul Allen<br />
| $13,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Steve Jobs (D)<br />
| $8,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Eric Schmidt<br />
| $7,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Sean Parker<br />
| $1,600,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Steve Case<br />
| $1,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="9"|Politicians and alleged evil plutocratic puppet masters<br />
|-<br />
| Warren Buffett<br />
| $50,000,000,000<br />
| Third<br />
|-<br />
| Charles Koch<br />
| $22,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| David Koch<br />
| $22,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Michael Bloomberg<br />
| $18,100,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 19 blocks instead of 18.<br />
|-<br />
| George Soros<br />
| $14,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Silvio Berlusconi and family<br />
| $7,800,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Rupert Murdoch<br />
| $7,600,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| David Geffen<br />
| $6,000,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 4 blocks instead of 6.<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Uncategorized<br />
|-<br />
| Bernard Arnault<br />
| $41,000,000,000<br />
| Fourth<br />
|-<br />
| Lakshmi Mittal<br />
| $31,100,000,000<br />
| Sixth<br />
|-<br />
| Amancio Ortega<br />
| $31,000,000,000<br />
| Seventh<br />
|-<br />
| Eike Batista<br />
| $30,000,000,000<br />
| Eighth<br />
|-<br />
| Mukesh Ambani<br />
| $27,000,000,000<br />
| Ninth<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Walmart<br />
|-<br />
| Christy Walton and family<br />
| $26,500,000,000<br />
| Tenth<br />
|-<br />
| Jim Walton<br />
| $21,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Alice Walton<br />
| $21,200,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| S. Robson Walton<br />
| $21,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Fictional (source: ''Forbes'')<br />
|-<br />
| Carlisle Cullen<br />
| $34,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Scrooge McDuck<br />
| $33,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Bruce Wayne<br />
| $6,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Artemis Fowl<br />
| $1,900,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Fashion<br />
|-<br />
| Lilianne Bettencourt<br />
| $23,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ralph Lauren<br />
| $5,800,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Ronald Lauder<br />
| $3,100,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 2 blocks instead of 3.<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Art and media<br />
|-<br />
| George Lucas<br />
| $3,200,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Oprah Winfrey<br />
| $3,200,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Five wealthiest rappers combined<br />
| $1,250,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| J. K. Rowling<br />
| $1,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Donald Trump<br />
|-<br />
| Donald Trump<br />
| $2,700,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 2 blocks instead of 3.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Combined net worth of the world's 1,210 billionaires $4,500,000,000,000<br />
<br />
===Corporations===<br />
<br />
by market capitalization (combined value of all stock)<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Company !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Saudi Aramco (State-owned company—estimated market value) || $2,940,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Apple || $358,310,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| ExxonMobil || $357,910,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| PetroChina || $280,160,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| IBM || $211,640,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Microsoft || $211,340,000,000 (the chart depicts 212 blocks instead of 211)<br />
|-<br />
| Bank of China || $208,810,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| China Mobile || $201,510,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Royal Dutch Shell || $199,780,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Nestle || $193,700,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Chevron || $188,030,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Facebook 2011 valuation || $70,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| AT&T attempted T-Mobile purchase || $39,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Facebook 2010 valuation || $33,450,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Zynga 2011 valuation || $14,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| LivingSocial 2011 valuation || $2,980,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
<br />
===Cost to buy the world a coke===<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Cost<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to buy the world a coke (2011 wholesale prices) || $2,240,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Coca-Cola's annual marketing budget || $2,980,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to teach the world to sing (four half-hour lessons at $30 each) || $840,000,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US household income===<br />
<br />
This section shows the money made every year in the US, broken into five pools of about $2 trillion each. The pools are sorted by income level—the top $2 trillion is made by a small number of wealthy households (the "one percent"), while the bottom $2 trillion represents the combined annual income of the poorer half of the country.<br />
<br />
Note: Figures are only estimates—these statistics were computed using data from the Congressional Budget Office analysis of 2007 incomes, and have been subject to the normalizations detailed below.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Who !! # Households !! % Households !! Typical income/year !! Income<br />
|-<br />
| The 1% || 1.6 million || 1.3 || >$400,000 || $1,397,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| High incomes || 9 million || 8 || $150,000 - $400,000 || $1,411,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Upper incomes || 18 million || 16 || $90,000 - $150,000 || $1,553,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Upper middle incomes || 27 million || 23 || $55,000 - $90,000 || $1,610,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| The bottom 50% || 63 million || ~50 || <$55,000 || $1,711,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total || 118.6 million || 98.3 || || $7,682,910,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Amount needed===<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Type !! Amount !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Required for poverty-line income || $2,602,000,000,000 || This is the amount that must be set aside from each pool to leave $22,350—roughly a poverty-line income—for each family in that pool. If taxes are cut into this region, then it forces the average after-tax income for the pool below $22,350. (Of course, many families in this group make less than that already.)<br />
|-<br />
| Required for a middle-class income || $4,874,000,000,000 || This is the amount that must be set aside from each pool to leave $44,700—roughly double the poverty-line income—for each family in that pool.<br />
|-<br />
| Amount needed to give everyone an income over $100,000 || $7,070,000,000,000 || Amount which must be left in the pool to keep the average income above $100,000 (See descriptions below for details)<br />
|-<br />
| Amount needed to give everyone an income over $250,000 || $8,836,000,000,000 || Amount which must be left in the pool to keep the average income above $250,000 (See descriptions below for details)<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Taxes===<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Type !! Amount !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| State taxes || $642,030,000,000 || Unlike federal taxes, state taxes are regressive—the poor pay a higher percentage of their income than the rich. This is because sales taxes, a large component of state revenues, fall disproportionately on the poor.<br />
|-<br />
| Federal taxes || $2,192,180,000,000 || effective total federal taxes paid, after deductions and tax credits<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
Note on methodology: these totals were calculated from an analysis of the 2007 CBO report on effective federal tax rates by income. There were some mismatches between figures on total income from various sources, and between CBO tax rates and federal revenue. The income totals here were adjusted for inflation and then scaled slightly to match federal tax revenue. This should only affect the total reported income and not the distribution of the tax burden or the rough makeup of the quintiles.<br />
<br />
===State government spending===<br />
<br />
[map without amounts]<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
| Total US states' debt || $46,000,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====US foreign military aid====<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Amount !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Total || $11,010,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Afghanistan || $5,800,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Israel || $2,410,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Egypt || $1,320,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $5,800,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $1,480,000,000.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
====US foreign humanitarian and economic aid====<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Amount<br />
|-<br />
| Total || $34,410,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Iraq and Afghanistan || $5,370,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| West Bank and Ghana || $1,050,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Africa (total) || $8,850,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $19,130,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Ft. Knox gold reserves===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Ft. Knox gold reserves (November 2011 prices) || $245,900,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Unclaimed US treasury bonds || $16,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| All the tea in China || $4,210,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Corporate tax deduction===<br />
<br />
(Note: some of the corporate deductions are very technical, and even with the help of a technical accountant, I had trouble making sense of them. The text below is my best attempt at an English interpretation of the legalese.)<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Deductions !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Corporate tax deduction || $125,180,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Reduced tax on first $10 million of corporate income || $3,240,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Delay of taxes on 'income' made from defaulting on a debt (Temporary stimulus measure) || $21,390,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Temporary change to equipment depreciation rules allowing more (and sooner) deductions on the purchase of new equipment || $24,390,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Clean energy, space, science, and tech R&D || $13,900,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Miscellaneous rules for international corporate finance || $6,800,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Foreign corporation income financing rules || $13,680,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $41,740,000,000 || Rounded down to 41 blocks<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Individual tax deductions===<br />
<br />
These are types of income, or uses of income, which the government has partly or fully exempt from tax, often to encourage some activity. This can be thought of as 'spent' tax revenue, although it's not quite that simple; there's no guarantee [that] removing the deduction would add that amount to revenue, because the presence of the deduction may be affecting taxpayers' spending habits.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Deductions !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Small business health insurance|| $1,620,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Federal employee expenses abroad || $7,910,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| EITC (anti-poverty low-income tax credit) || $78,760,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $56,460,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
| Donations to charity || $39,130,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Capital gains (investment income) || $78,760,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Pension contributions || $84,940,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Other || $64,970,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Employee fringe benefits || $6,690,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Scholarships || $2,130,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Property taxes || $15,710,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Employer-provided transportation || $3,850,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Retirement accounts || $24,630,000,000 || Rounded down to 24 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Cafeteria plans || $26,760,000,000 || Rounded down to 26 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| State and local bonds || $19,560,000,000 || Rounded down to 19 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Company daycare || $3,140,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| College and university tax credits || $12,060,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Mortgage interest || $92,040,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Medicare Benefits || $55,850,000,000 || Rounded down to 55 blocks<br />
|-<br />
| Child care || $55,850,000,000 || The chart depicts 104 blocks instead of 107.<br />
|-<br />
| Employer health plans || $107,140,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Making Work Pay (ending) || $60,510,000,000 || The chart depicts 64 blocks instead of 61.<br />
|-<br />
| First-time homebuyer credit || $8,820,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Veterans' benefits || $5,570,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Life insurance benefits || $25,750,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Capital gains death exclusion || $25,750,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Social security and railroad retirement || $27,170,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Home sale capital gains || $15,200,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Total || $964,970,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Federal spending===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Annual deficit || $1,394,530,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Additional receipts || $83,230,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Taxes raised || $2,192,180,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Disasters===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Disaster !! Estimated Total Damage !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Japan 2011 Earthquake || $235,000,000,000 || reconstruction and recovery cost, World Bank estimate<br />
|-<br />
| Hurricane Katrina || $107,440,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 US Drought || $78,060,000,000 || The chart depicts 83 blocks instead of 78<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 US Drought || $60,740,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Hurricane Andrew || $46,180,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 9/11 insured losses || $40,000,000,000 || For hurricanes, the rule of thumb is that total losses are roughly double insured losses. It is unclear if a similar rule exists for terrorism.<br />
|-<br />
| Hurricane Ike || $28,170,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Hurricane Irene || $8,000,000,000 || (estimated) (the chart depicts 10 blocks instead of 8)<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Hypothetical disasters===<br />
<br />
Estimated total losses if the disaster happened today<br />
(based on insurance industry modeling)<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Disaster !! Estimated Total Losses !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| 1938 Long Island Express || $236,960,000,000 || if it had curved left and made landfall in New Jersey instead of Long Island (rounded down to 236 blocks)<br />
|-<br />
| 1812 New Madrid, Missouri earthquake || $206,050,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1926 Miami hurricane || $202,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1906 San Francisco earthquake || $197,810,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1900 Galveston hurricane || $82,420,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Long Island Express || $78,060,000,000 || (1938 New England Hurricane)<br />
|-<br />
| Charleston SC, quake of 1886 || $76,240,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake || $12,360,000,000 ||<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Cost of electricity===<br />
<br />
(Price of electricity to power all US homes for a year, by plant type)<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Plant Type !! Cost !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Advance combined cycle natural gas || 78,100,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Conventional Coal (without societal costs) || 117,340,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| External societal costs from the use of that amount of coal power || $226,690,000,000 || Harvard Medical School analysis. The range of possible values was $119b to $342b. Most of the uncertainty was due to potentially lower costs from air pollution or higher ones from climate change.<br />
|-<br />
| Public Health Burden in Appalacia [sic] || $55,400,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $60,400,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
| Air pollution from power plants || $118,300,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $123,300,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
| Climate Impact || $40,030,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Advanced coal with carbon capture || $168,590,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Biomass || $139,250,000,000 || Estimates of climate impact vary wildly Consensus seems to be more than nothing but less than coal.<br />
|-<br />
| Geothermal || $125,880,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Advanced nuclear || $140,980,000,000 || Little impact on climate/air, but hard to find assessments of meltdown and fuel storage costs/risks. Some past costs shown for perspective.<br />
|-<br />
| Hydroelectric || $106,940,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Wind || $120,070,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Offshore wind || $301,030,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Solar (photovoltaic) || $260,800,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Solar (thermal) || $385,940,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Nuclear accidents===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
!Accident !! Cost !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Fukushima meltdown estimated total cost to Japan || $131,100,000,000 || Compare to $128,590,000,000 for deaths from quake/tsunami<br />
|-<br />
| Fukushima cost from 300 extra cancer deaths (EPA conversion) || $2,570,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Belarus estimated 30-year costs from Chernobyl || $282,350,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Cost of estimated 42,457 Chernobyl deaths (EPA method) || $344,750,000,000 ||<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===BP oil spill claims fund===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| BP oil spill claims fund || $20,270,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami aid from all countries || $15,840,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Worldwide aid to Somalia since 1991 || $55,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| G8/IMF loan pledge to Arab Spring || $73,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Japan's contribution to TEPCO victim fund || $62,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to fund Wikipedia at current levels for 100 years || $1,850,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to provide free yearly tax prep to every US household || $8,450,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to give every US 18 year-old a free degree at a community college || $46,340,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Additional cost to fund all US schools at magnet school levels || $46,340,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Annual cost to send every US child to a university for free || $127,610,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to buy the Amazon rainforest || $130,000,000,000 || $100/acre going rate for poor-access land<br />
|-<br />
| UBS loss from one rogue trader || $2,300,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| DoE loan to CA Valley Solar Ranch Project || $1,200,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Apple's cash on hand || $76,200,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===New York CIty===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Area !! Combined Property Value !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| New York City || $806,490,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Manhattan || $281,040,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Queens || $208,180,000,000 || rounded up to 209 blocks<br />
|-<br />
| Brooklyn || $201,230,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Staten Island || $61,380,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Bronx || $54,660,000,000 || rounded down to 54 blocks<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Megaprojects===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Project !! Cost !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| National missile defense shield cost through 2013 || $107,690,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| F-22 Raptor program (halted) || $67,610,000,000 || The chart depicts 61 blocks instead of 68.<br />
|-<br />
| Planned Russian Bering Strait tunnel || $66,000,000,000 || The chart depicts 56 blocks instead of 66.<br />
|-<br />
| Obama's 2011 high-speed rail proposal || $53,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to build SF-to-LA high-speed rail || $45,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| UK Crossrail || $26,490,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| King Abdullah Economic City || $50,020,000,000 || High-speed rail $9,120,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Hong Kong International airport || $27,120,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Manhattan Project || $24,400,000,000 || Rounded up to 25 blocks<br />
|-<br />
| 2nd Avenue NYC subway line || $17,960,000,000 || Rounded down to 17 blocks<br />
|-<br />
| Big Dig cost || $18,510,000,000 || as of 2008 (rounded down to 18 blocks)<br />
|-<br />
| Failed Army intelligence-sharing computer system || $2,700,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Bay Bridge span replacement || $6,300,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Downtown Dubai project || $20,270,000,000 || Burj Khalifa $1,520,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Channel Tunnel || $22,960,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| ''Nimitz''-class carrier || $4,930,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| ''Gerald R. Ford''-class carrier || $9,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Amtrak 30-year plan for northeast corridor || $192,000,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $117,000,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
| City Qatar is building to host the 2022 World Cup || $207,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Apollo moon landing project || $192,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| International Space Station || $138,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Space Shuttle program || $194,620,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| US interstate highway system || $465,970,000,000 || The largest single public-works project in the history of mankind<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Federal budget===<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="8"|General/Legislative<br />
|-<br />
| Policy and regulation<br />
| $629,460,000<br />
| Merged into one block with Management.<br />
|-<br />
| Fiscal assistance<br />
| $5,150,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Property and records<br />
| $1,550,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Legislative<br />
| $4,140,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Fiscal operations<br />
| $12,070,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Management<br />
| $535,000,000<br />
| Merged into one block with Policy and regulation.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $24,074,460,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Energy<br />
|-<br />
| Conservation<br />
| $5,070,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Supply<br />
| $5,870,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Policy and regulation<br />
| $629,460,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Preparedness<br />
| $201,710,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $11,771,170,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Science/Tech<br />
|-<br />
| General R&D<br />
| $12,850,000,000<br />
| Rounded down to 12 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Space<br />
| $18,620,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $31,470,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Agriculture<br />
|-<br />
| Farm income<br />
| $16,830,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| R&D and services<br />
| $4,820,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $21,650,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="6"|Justice<br />
|-<br />
| Law Enforcement<br />
| $28,140,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Criminal justice assistance<br />
| $4,920,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Legal<br />
| $13,250,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Corrections<br />
| $7,850,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $54,160,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Community and regional development<br />
|-<br />
| Community<br />
| $10,040,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Regional<br />
| $3,290,000,000<br />
| Label swapped with Disaster relief.<br />
|-<br />
| Disaster relief<br />
| $10,800,000,000<br />
| Label swapped with Regional.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $24,130,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Transportation<br />
|-<br />
| Air<br />
| $21,720,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Water<br />
| $9,480,000,000<br />
| Rounded up to 10 bocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Ground<br />
| $61,610,000,000<br />
| Rounded down to 61 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $92,810,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Education and job training<br />
|-<br />
| Social services<br />
| $19,440,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Research and other labor<br />
| $5,470,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Training/employment<br />
| $9,990,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Higher education<br />
| $20,300,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| K-12 and vocational education<br />
| $74,260,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 73 blocks instead of 74.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $129,460,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Natural resources<br />
|-<br />
| Pollution control<br />
| $10,990,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Conservation<br />
| $10,930,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Recreation<br />
| $3,960,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other resources<br />
| $6,560,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Water<br />
| $11,810,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $44,250,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="5"|Health/Medicaid<br />
|-<br />
| Health care<br />
| $335,320,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Safety<br />
| $4,200,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Research<br />
| $34,670,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $374,080,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="2"|Interest on debt<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $198,870,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="3"|Social Security<br />
|-<br />
|<br />
| $716,360,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Federal payments to dead retirees<br />
| $120,200,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="8"|Income security<br />
|-<br />
| Other income aid<br />
| $184,350,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Food aid<br />
| $96,410,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Retirement and disability (non-SS)<br />
| $6,650,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Housing<br />
| $59,450,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Government retirement and disability<br />
| $121,500,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Unemployment<br />
| $162,330,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $630,680,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="7"|Veterans<br />
|-<br />
| Other<br />
| $4,940,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Training and rehab<br />
| $8,200,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Housing<br />
| $547,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Medical care<br />
| $46,340,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Unemployment<br />
| $49,830,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $109,860,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="10"|Military<br />
|-<br />
| R&D<br />
| $78,040,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Housing<br />
| $3,220,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Nuclear security<br />
| $19,580,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| "Defense-related"<br />
| $7,670,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Construction<br />
| $21,460,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Personnel<br />
| $157,810,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Operations<br />
| $279,750,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Equipment<br />
| $135,420,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $703,030,000,000<br />
|<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Budget options===<br />
<br />
Estimates by the Congressional Budget Office of the effect of various hypothetical policy decisions on annual tax revenue averaged over the next ten years.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
! Category<br />
! Item<br />
! Price<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Cost of existing tax cuts (Loss in annual revenue if tax cuts are made permanent)<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 (Bush) tax cuts<br />
| $158,240,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2003 (Bush) capital gains tax cuts<br />
| $27,190,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2010 (Obama) payroll tax cut<br />
| $111,700,000,000<br />
|-<br />
! rowspan="4"|Potential new taxes (Increase in annual tax revenue if implimented)<br />
|-<br />
| Raise corporate taxes by one percentage point<br />
| $10,060,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Legalize marijuana (and tax it at levels similar to tobacco)<br />
| $7,020,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Institute tax on CO2 emissions<br />
| $10,060,000,000 (This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $118,000,000,000)<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Stimulus spending===<br />
{| class="wikitable"<br />
|-<br />
! Year<br />
! Item<br />
! Value<br />
! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| rowspan="5"|2008<br />
|-<br />
| Individual tax breaks <br />
| $120,110,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Student loan guarantees<br />
| $33,470,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Business tax breaks<br />
| $52,360,000,000<br />
| Rounded up to 53 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $205,930,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| rowspan="9"|2009<br />
|-<br />
| Tax breaks<br />
| $307,530,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 318 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Education<br />
| $90,460,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 92 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Medicare/Medicaid<br />
| $80,500,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 89 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Transportation<br />
| $32,560,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Unemployment<br />
| $62,740,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Infrastructure<br />
| $24,000,000,000<br />
|<br />
|-<br />
| Other<br />
| $150,160,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 183 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| Total<br />
| $747,950,000,000<br />
| The chart depicts 800 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Bailouts===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Value !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| 1980s-1990 S&L bailout || $78,300,000,000 || total cost to taxpayers (the chart depicts 180 blocks)<br />
|-<br />
| Cost to FDIC of bank failures || $19,000,000,000 || resulting from the 2008 financial crisis<br />
|-<br />
| TARP bailout funds distributed || $392,980,000,000 || Out of $700,000,000,000 available<br />
|-<br />
| Estimated TARP taxpayer losses || $41,660,000,000 || The chart depicts 36 blocks instead of 42.<br />
|-<br />
| Value of outstanding TARP assets || $144,440,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $144,440,000,000.<br />
|-<br />
| Bailout funds returned || $206,880,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Current Eurozone bailout fund || $1,361,700,000,000 || The chart depicts 1162 blocks instead of 1362.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Federal Payments===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Cost !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Annual improper federal payments comprising fraud, abuse, and poorly-documented payments || $125,400,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Federal payments to dead retirees || $120,200,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Ground Zero medical expenses fund || $2,800,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| NEA-estimated cost to bring all US schools into good repair || $413,300,000,000,000 || The chart depicts 423 blocks instead of 413.<br />
|-<br />
| Annual economic cost of unmaintained infrastructure || $129,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Estimated direct annual agricultural value of bees || $220,000,000,000 ||<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Military/Security Spending===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Item !! Cost<br />
|-<br />
| Wasted money in Afghanistan/Iraq war contracts || $60,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Reconstruction money reportedly missing || $18,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total US spending since 2001 to secure borders || $90,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| US nuclear arms spending during the Cold War || $2,818,300,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Ballistic missile submarines || $451,360,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Ballistic missiles to put on those submarines || $136,690,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| The $87 billion which John Kerry voted for/against || $101,800,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| "Star Wars" missile defense system (1987 Heritage Foundation estimate) || $185,300,000,000<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US Spending on Wars===<br />
<br />
Including only direct spending on war operations, and not the resulting veterans' benefits or interest on debt incurred.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! War !! Cost !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| World War I || $334,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Spanish-American War || $9,030,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Civil War || $79,740,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| American revolution || $2,410,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1812 || $1,550,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Mexican War || $2,380,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| World War II || $4,104,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Korean War || $341,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Vietnam War || $738,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Persian Gulf War || $102,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Iraq War || $784,000,000,000 || The chart depicts 786 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| War in Afghanistan || $321,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Total || $804,410,000,000 || This appears to be a mistake by [[Randall]] and should read $8,044,100,000,000.<br />
|}<br />
<br />
</div><br />
<br />
==Trillions==<br />
<div class="toccolours mw-collapsible mw-collapsed"><br />
<br />
===Size of derivatives market by year===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Year !! Amount !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 || $3,090,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1995 || $26,690,000,000,000 || Rounded down to 26 blocks.<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 || $86,390,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 || $227,260,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || $439,000,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Size of credit default swap market by year (included in derivatives)===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Year !! Amount<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 || $1,150,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 || $19,350,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2007 || $66,280,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || $31,350,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===US household net worth===<br />
<br />
$58,740,000,000,000<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Item !! Net Worth<br />
|-<br />
| Richest 1% || $19,620,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Richer half || $57,270,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Poorer half || $1,470,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Total debt in the US===<br />
<br />
$36,560,000,000,000<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Item !! Debt<br />
|-<br />
| Household || $13,560,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| State and local government || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Federal government || $9,510,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Business || $10,980,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===World GDP===<br />
<br />
$62,900,000,000,000<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Region !! GDP<br />
|-<br />
| North America || $17,850,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| United States || $14,530,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| South America || $3,070,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| EU || $16,240,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Europe (incl. Russia and Turkey) || $20,130,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Africa || $1,610,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Asia || $17,530,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Oceania || $1,310,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Total public debt===<br />
<br />
Note: US figures are from 2011, while the other totals use 2010 debt in 2011 dollars, which is likely an underestimate.<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Region !! Debt !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| EU (total) || $13,340,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| United States || $10,200,000,000,000 || Plus internal government borrowing of 4,740,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Japan || $8,630,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Germany || $2,480,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Italy || $2,140,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| India || $2,140,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| China || $1,907,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| France || $1,767,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| United Kingdom || $1,654,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Brazil || $1,281,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Canada || $1,130,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Spain || $834,210,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Mexico || $584,860,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Greece || $460,180,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===World total===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Item !! Value !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| proven oil reserves || $131,960,000,000,000 || November 2011 prices<br />
|-<br />
| US reserves || $20,580,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| proven coal reserves || $72,850,000,000,000 || 2011 central Appalachian prices<br />
|-<br />
| US reserves || $20,020,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| proven natural gas reserves || $21,470,000,000,000 || 2011 NYMEX prices<br />
|-<br />
| US reserves || $930,470,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| liquid assets || $77,000,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Estimated total economic production of the human race (so far, roughly three-fifths of it since 1980) || $2,396,950,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Value of 10 years of electricity generated if the surface of Texas were converted to:===<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Item !! Value<br />
|-<br />
| Solar power plants || $89,240,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| Wind turbines || $7,950,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===All US real estate===<br />
<br />
$28,380,000,000,000<br />
<br />
{| class="wikitable sortable"<br />
! Type !! Value !! Notes<br />
|-<br />
| Home || $23,010,000,000,000 ||<br />
|-<br />
| Commercial || $5,370,000,000,000 || includes stores, apartments, industrial, etc.<br />
|-<br />
|}<br />
<br />
===Value of all gold ever mined (late 2011 prices)===<br />
<br />
$9,120,000,000,000<br />
<br />
===GDP by year===<br />
{|class="wikitable sortable"<br />
|-<br />
! Year !! GDP (total economic activity) the world (minus the US) !! GDP (total economic productivity) of the US (minus government) !! US federal government<br />
|-<br />
| 1920 || || ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1930 || || ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1940 || || ||<br />
|-<br />
| 1942 || || || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1943 || || || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1944 || || || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1945 || || || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1946 || || || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1947 || || $2,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1948 || || $2,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1949 || || $2,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1950 || || $2,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1951 || || $2,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1952 || || $2,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1953 || || $2,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1954 || || $2,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1955 || || $3,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1956 || || $3,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1957 || || $3,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1958 || || $3,000,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1959 || || $3,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1960 || || $3,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1961 || || $3,500,000,000,000 || $500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1962 || || $3,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1963 || || $4,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1964 || || $4,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1965 || || $4,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1966 || || $4,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1967 || || $5,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1968 || || $5,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1969 || || $5,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1970 || || $5,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1971 || || $5,500,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1972 || || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1973 || || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1974 || || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1975 || || $5,500,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1976 || || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1977 || || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1978 || || $6,500,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1979 || || $7,000,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1980 || $19,000,000,000,000 || $6,500,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1981 || $19,000,000,000,000 || $6,500,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1982 || $19,500,000,000,000 || $6,000,000,000,000 || $1,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1983 || $20,000,000,000,000 || $6,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1984 || $20,000,000,000,000 || $7,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1985 || $22,000,000,000,000 || $7,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1986 || $23,000,000,000,000 || $7,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1987 || $23,500,000,000,000 || $7,500,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1988 || $25,000,000,000,000 || $8,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1989 || $26,000,000,000,000 || $8,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1990 || $27,000,000,000,000 || $8,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1991 || $27,000,000,000,000 || $8,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1992 || $31,000,000,000,000 || $8,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1993 || $32,500,000,000,000 || $8,500,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1994 || $33,000,000,000,000 || $9,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1995 || $34,000,000,000,000 || $9,000,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1996 || $34,500,000,000,000 || $9,500,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1997 || $36,500,000,000,000 || $9,500,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1998 || $36,500,000,000,000 || $10,500,000,000,000 || $2,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 1999 || $37,000,000,000,000 || $10,500,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2000 || $39,000,000,000,000 || $10,500,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2001 || $39,000,000,000,000 || $10,500,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2002 || $41,000,000,000,000 || $10,500,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2003 || $42,500,000,000,000 || $11,000,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2004 || $45,000,000,000,000 || $11,500,000,000,000 || $2,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2005 || $47,500,000,000,000 || $11,500,000,000,000 || $3,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2006 || $50,000,000,000,000 || $12,000,000,000,000 || $3,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2007 || $53,000,000,000,000 || $12,000,000,000,000 || $3,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2008 || $58,500,000,000,000 || $11,500,000,000,000 || $3,000,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2009 || $57,500,000,000,000 || $11,000,000,000,000 || $3,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2010 || $61,000,000,000,000 || $11,500,000,000,000 || $3,500,000,000,000<br />
|-<br />
| 2011 || $63,500,000,000,000 || $11,500,000,000,000 || $4,000,000,000,000<br />
|}<br />
</div><br />
{{DEFAULTSORT:0980}}</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2498:_Forest_Walk&diff=2239792498: Forest Walk2022-01-11T01:45:52Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Hotfixes</p>
<hr />
<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2498<br />
| date = August 4, 2021<br />
| title = Forest Walk<br />
| image = forest_walk.png<br />
| titletext = The only other person to walk by was a linguist back in the 80s, but she just spent a while dissecting the phrase 'help me down' before getting distracted by a squirrel and wandering off.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
[[Megan]] is walking through a wide landscape with [[Beret Guy]] who owns a big part of it. Megan is surprised that he owns such a big property, however, Beret Guy is known for his inexplicable businesses such as in [[1493: Meeting]] and from [[1032: Networking]]; we know he probably has enough resources to be able to buy it. Alternatively, he might have simply inherited it from his mom [[502: Dark Flow]], or may not understand the concept of owning it. Nevertheless, he walks here every day, and from the context of the comic, it seems pretty much no one else comes here.<br />
<br />
They meet a rather disheveled-looking bearded man hanging from a parachute caught in a tree. The man shakes a stick at them and demands to be helped down to the ground. Beret Guy simply addresses him as "Mister Cooper" and asks if he promises to return the money he took. The man angrily refuses, and Beret Guy casually says he'll see him again tomorrow, suggesting that this conversation has become a daily routine.<br />
<br />
Megan asks if the man was D. B. Cooper, which Beret Guy immediately confirms. He then comments on an owl nest as another bit of "neat stuff" found on his land, suggesting that he finds Cooper's presence to be just another mildly interesting part of this land.<br />
<br />
{{w|D. B. Cooper}} is the identity given to a man who hijacked a Boeing 727 aircraft in 1971. He collected a $200,000 ransom (equivalent to $1,250,000 in 2020) and famously donned a parachute and jumped from the plane over the state of Washington. He was never seen or heard from again. Despite lengthy FBI investigations and nationwide publicity, the hijacker was never identified. A few thousand dollars of the ransom money was found in a river, nearly 10 years after the hijacking, but the remainder has never been recovered. The only things known about him are a police composite drawing and the name "Dan Cooper", under which he had purchased his airline ticket (he was called "D.B." as a result of a miscommunication with the media, and the name stuck).<br />
<br />
The high-profile case followed by the never-solved mystery has led to a massive amount of speculation as to his identity, background, and what became of him. Many consider the most likely scenario to be that he didn't survive the parachute jump, and simply crashed somewhere that his body was never found. Others imagine that he escaped with the money and simply managed to evade capture.<br />
<br />
The comic is insinuating that, after leaping from the plane, he got entangled in a tree in Beret Guy's land, and has been there ever since. <br />
<br />
Uncanny situations are nothing new to Beret Guy since he possesses [[:Category:Strange_powers_of_Beret_Guy|many strange powers]]. Hence, the concept of a famous criminal hanging from a tree for nearly 50 years doesn't seem any more interesting to him than an owl's nest. In keeping with the typical bizarre-ness of Beret Guy's life, it isn't explained how a man could survive for half a century hanging from a tree, why he'd choose to remain trapped there for his entire life rather than return money that he's in no position to spend, or why Beret Guy wouldn't simply report his whereabouts to the police. All of these are simply accepted as unremarkable realities of life, for him. <br />
<br />
D. B. Cooper was already referenced by Randall in [[1400: D.B. Cooper]], [[1501: Mysteries]] and [[2452: Aviation Firsts]].<br />
<br />
The title text may refer to the linguist from [[2390: Linguists]] who is more interested in the linguistic nuances that people use than in actually responding to their call for assistance. It is not known how many others have walked through Beret Guy's land, in the interim, or whether it is their nature or the general aura from Beret Guy, but the linguist did not much more than ponder the phrase "help me down". Megan also seems in no particular hurry to intervene.<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
:[Megan and Beret Guy are walking through a landscape with spread-out trees and grass and puddles on the ground.]<br />
:Megan: Wow, this is all yours?<br />
:Beret Guy: Yeah! All the way back to the river!<br />
:Beret Guy: I walk here every day.<br />
<br />
:[Megan still walks towards Beret Guy who has now stopped and is looking up while speaking to a man hanging in a tree in front of them. The man has long wild hair and a large beard. He hangs from his parachute which has been folded around a large branch sticking out from beneath the top of the tree. He is holding a long stick of some sort, seemingly attempting to threaten Beret Guy, as the stick and his legs are vibrating as indicated with small lines.]<br />
:Beret Guy: Morning, Mister Cooper!<br />
:Cooper: You help me down '''''this instant!'''''<br />
<br />
:[Pan down to show only Beret Guy and nothing else. Cooper replies from off-panel from the top corner.]<br />
:Beret Guy: Do you promise to give back all the money you took?<br />
:Cooper [off-panel]: '''''Never!'''''<br />
:Beret Guy: Okay! See you tomorrow!<br />
<br />
:[Megan and Beret Guy continue walking through the landscape with three small trees behind them, as well as grass, rocks, and a small puddle. Megan looks back over her shoulder towards where Cooper is hanging.]<br />
:Megan: Was that D.B. Cooper?<br />
:Beret Guy: Yeah, and up ahead there's an owl nest!<br />
:Beret Guy: There's so much neat stuff here.<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Megan]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Beret Guy]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring D. B. Cooper]]<br />
[[Category:Animals]] <!-- Owls nest --><br />
[[Category:Squirrels]] <!-- Title text --><br />
[[Category:Language]] <!-- Title text --><br />
[[Category:Strange_powers_of_Beret_Guy]] <!-- Arguable. But indefinitely sustaining the life of a suspended and exposed fugitive from justice could be one. Persuading at least one (or now two) other visitors to be unconcerned, to the extent of probably never speaking of it to anyone else, might be another. --></div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=1082:_Geology&diff=2239781082: Geology2022-01-11T01:44:26Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
<hr />
<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 1082<br />
| date = July 16, 2012<br />
| title = Geology<br />
| image = geology.png<br />
| titletext = That's a gneiss butte.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
Here we have [[Cueball]] and [[Megan]] discussing {{w|geology}} and the words they use are ripe with puns and {{w|double entendre}}s which also have sexual meanings. In the end, they just decide to get it on.<br />
<br />
Specifically, the suggestive terms are "{{w|Bed (geology)|bedding}}," "{{w|Extensional tectonics|spreading}}," "{{w|friction}}," "{{w|Cleavage (geology)|cleavage}}," "deeper in the {{w|rift}}," "{{w|orogeny}}," (perhaps a {{w|portmanteau}} of {{w|orgy}} and {{w|erogenous}}), "huge," and "{{w|Thrust fault|thrust}}."<br />
<br />
The technical terms are:<br />
;Bedding : The division of usually {{w|sedimentary rock|sedimentary rocks}} into distinct layers.<br />
;Spreading : A process in which two geological regions are moving apart, and potentially allowing for {{w|magma}} to rise between them. Spreading occurs in {{w|mid-ocean ridge|mid-ocean ridges}} and in {{w|rift valley|rift valleys}}. <br />
;Friction breccia : {{w|Breccia}} is a rock made of broken fragments of other rocks. When these fragments can be formed from the rubbing between rocks in a fault, it is a friction breccia.<br />
;Flow cleavage : The {{w|crystal|crystals}} in a rock can be aligned by the {{w|plastic flow}} of a rock when it is hot. This causes the rock to split (cleave) along particular planes.<br />
;Rift : A result of spreading is that rocks break, forming vertical faults, and allowing regions to sink and form valleys.<br />
;Orogeny : The process of mountain forming, or a period in which mountains are formed.<br />
;Thrust fault : A sloping crack in the rocks at which one region of rocks is pushing another up.<br />
<br />
So it seems that Megan tells Cueball to ignore the layers in the rock, as there is evidence that the valley they are in is a recent rift valley. It was formed in cracking following the lifting up of the surrounding rocks.<br />
<br />
The title text is a wordplay, as it could sound like "nice butt". {{w|Gneiss}} is a type of rock made up of different bands, and a {{w|butte}} is an isolated hill with steep sides and a flat top, but smaller than a {{w|plateau}}. However, "butte" is not pronounced like "butt", but as "beaut".<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
:[Two people are doing a geological survey.]<br />
:Megan: Forget the bedding - we were wrong about the whole valley.<br />
:Cueball: The spreading is recent.<br />
<br />
:Megan: See the friction breccia?<br />
:Cueball: Oh - flow cleavage!<br />
:Cueball: Deeper in the rift.<br />
:Megan: Deeper.<br />
:[An idea pops into Megan's head.]<br />
<br />
:[The same idea pops into Cueball's head.]<br />
:Megan: This orogeny<br />
:Cueball: is driven by a<br />
:Megan: ''huge''<br />
:Cueball: ''thrust'' fault<br />
<br />
:[They both drop to the ground in a fit of passion.]<br />
:Geology: Surprisingly erotic.<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Cueball]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Megan]]<br />
[[Category:Language]]<br />
[[Category:Romance]]<br />
[[Category:Geology]]<br />
[[Category:Physics]]<br />
[[Category:Sex]]<br />
[[Category:Puns]]</div>IdiosyncraticLawyerhttps://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php?title=2498:_Forest_Walk&diff=2239772498: Forest Walk2022-01-11T01:41:43Z<p>IdiosyncraticLawyer: Spelling and grammar</p>
<hr />
<div>{{comic<br />
| number = 2498<br />
| date = August 4, 2021<br />
| title = Forest Walk<br />
| image = forest_walk.png<br />
| titletext = The only other person to walk by was a linguist back in the 80s, but she just spent a while dissecting the phrase 'help me down' before getting distracted by a squirrel and wandering off.<br />
}}<br />
<br />
==Explanation==<br />
[[Megan]] is walking through a wide landscape with [[Beret Guy]] who owns a big part of it. Megan is surprised that he owns such a big property, however, Beret Guy is known for his inexplicable businesses such as in [[1493: Meeting]] and from [[1032: Networking]]; we know he probably has enough resources to be able to buy it. Alternatively, he might have simply inherited it from his mom [[502: Dark Flow]], or may not really understand the concept of actually owning it. Nevertheless, he walks here every day, and from the context of the comic, it seems pretty much no one else comes here.<br />
<br />
They meet a rather disheveled-looking bearded man hanging from a parachute caught in a tree. The man shakes a stick at them and demands to be helped down to the ground. Beret Guy simply addresses him as "Mister Cooper" and asks if he promises to return the money he took. The man angrily refuses, and Beret Guy casually says he'll see him again tomorrow, suggesting that this conversation has become a daily routine.<br />
<br />
Megan asks if the man was D. B. Cooper, which Beret Guy immediately confirms. He then comments on an owl nest as another bit of "neat stuff" found on his land, suggesting that he finds Cooper's presence to be just another mildly interesting part of this land.<br />
<br />
{{w|D. B. Cooper}} is the identity given to a man who hijacked a Boeing 727 aircraft in 1971. He collected a $200,000 ransom (equivalent to $1,250,000 in 2020) and famously donned a parachute and jumped from the plane over the state of Washington. He was never seen or heard from again. Despite lengthy FBI investigations and nationwide publicity, the hijacker was never identified. A few thousand dollars of the ransom money was found in a river, nearly 10 years after the hijacking, but the remainder has never been recovered. The only things known about him are a police composite drawing and the name "Dan Cooper", under which he had purchased his airline ticket (he was called "D.B." as a result of a miscommunication with the media, and the name stuck).<br />
<br />
The high-profile case followed by the never-solved mystery has led to a massive amount of speculation as to his identity, background, and what became of him. Many consider the most likely scenario to be that he didn't survive the parachute jump, and simply crashed somewhere that his body was never found. Others imagine that he escaped with the money and simply managed to evade capture.<br />
<br />
The comic is insinuating that, after leaping from the plane, he got entangled in a tree in Beret Guy's land, and has been there ever since. <br />
<br />
Uncanny situations are nothing new to Beret Guy since he himself possesses [[:Category:Strange_powers_of_Beret_Guy|many strange powers]]. Hence, the concept of a famous criminal hanging from a tree for nearly 50 years doesn't seem any more interesting to him than an owl's nest. In keeping with the typical bizarre-ness of Beret Guy's life, it isn't explained how a man could survive for half a century hanging from a tree, why he'd choose to remain trapped there for his entire life rather than return money that he's in no position to spend, or why Beret Guy wouldn't simply report his whereabouts to the police. All of these are simply accepted as unremarkable realities of life, for him. <br />
<br />
D. B. Cooper was already referenced by Randall in [[1400: D.B. Cooper]], [[1501: Mysteries]] and [[2452: Aviation Firsts]].<br />
<br />
The title text may refer to the linguist from [[2390: Linguists]] who is more interested in the linguistic nuances that people use than in actually responding to their call for assistance. It is not known how many others have walked through Beret Guy's land, in the interim, or whether it is their own nature or the general aura from Beret Guy, but the linguist clearly did not much more than ponder the phrase "help me down". Megan also seems in no particular hurry to intervene.<br />
<br />
==Transcript==<br />
:[Megan and Beret Guy are walking through a landscape with spread-out trees and grass and puddles on the ground.]<br />
:Megan: Wow, this is all yours?<br />
:Beret Guy: Yeah! All the way back to the river!<br />
:Beret Guy: I walk here every day.<br />
<br />
:[Megan still walks towards Beret Guy who has now stopped and is looking up while speaking to a man hanging in a tree in front of them. The man has long wild hair and a large beard. He hangs from his parachute which has been folded around a large branch sticking out from beneath the top of the tree. He is holding a long stick of some sort, seemingly attempting to threaten Beret Guy, as the stick and his legs are vibrating as indicated with small lines.]<br />
:Beret Guy: Morning, Mister Cooper!<br />
:Cooper: You help me down '''''this instant!'''''<br />
<br />
:[Pan down to show only Beret Guy and nothing else. Cooper replies from off-panel from the top corner.]<br />
:Beret Guy: Do you promise to give back all the money you took?<br />
:Cooper [off-panel]: '''''Never!'''''<br />
:Beret Guy: Okay! See you tomorrow!<br />
<br />
:[Megan and Beret Guy continue walking through the landscape with three small trees behind them, as well as grass, rocks, and a small puddle. Megan looks back over her shoulder towards where Cooper is hanging.]<br />
:Megan: Was that D.B. Cooper?<br />
:Beret Guy: Yeah, and up ahead there's an owl nest!<br />
:Beret Guy: There's so much neat stuff here.<br />
<br />
{{comic discussion}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Megan]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring Beret Guy]]<br />
[[Category:Comics featuring D. B. Cooper]]<br />
[[Category:Animals]] <!-- Owls nest --><br />
[[Category:Squirrels]] <!-- Title text --><br />
[[Category:Language]] <!-- Title text --><br />
[[Category:Strange_powers_of_Beret_Guy]] <!-- Arguable. But indefinitely sustaining the life of a suspended and exposed fugitive from justice could be one. Persuading at least one (or now two) other visitors to be unconcerned, to the extent of probably never speaking of it to anyone else, might be another. --></div>IdiosyncraticLawyer